Monday, August 24, 2020

High School Sports Importance

Secondary School Sports Most secondary schools have at any rate four games they offer to their understudies. In numerous locale, there must be an equivalent measure of sports for young men and young ladies. Some even have co-ed donning clubs. Secondary school sports have been an essential piece of the secondary school educational plan for a long time. For a considerable length of time the school areas have understood the significance of sports. Be that as it may, not all guardians completely understand the significance. A few youngsters are not permitted to partake in school sports, in view of the cost, the time responsibility, or the chance of injury.The truth is that secondary school sports are something other than fun. They are extraordinary instruments to helpstudents find out about existence. They can show understudies who are included numerous things. Collaboration, participation, and authority are a few things understudies can gain from school sports. They can bring these thin gs into their regular daily existences also. At the point when they assemble certainty on the brandishing field, they are additionally constructing certainty against the world. They will have the option to cooperate with other people in every single other everyday issue too. Secondary school sports are likewise the ideal method to get youngsters far from drugs and different perilous behaviors.Coaches are incredible good examples that can regularly urge players to be polite. A few schools even have restrains on GPAs for their competitors. In the event that an understudy athlete’s grades fall underneath a specific point, they can't play. Understudies who love sports will successfully play, including concentrate more. They will likewise be less inclined to attempt medications or violate the law in some other way. Thus, permit your youngsters to take an interest in school sports. Get included and warm up to the guardians of different understudies also. The entire family can make some extraordinary memories and find out about games together

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Making Patriotism Trough Primary School Education free essay sample

Malaysia : Making Patriotism Trough Primary School Education. Examining about making the country state in all nation is by all accounts the equivalent. It ought to incorporate too often, property or generosity so as to making the â€Å"intelligence average enthusiasm stereotype† among the residents. It is relies upon the technique that applied to accomplish the objective of â€Å"united people†. Taken from Malay axiom â€Å"melentur buluh biarlah daripada rebungnya† is by all accounts the right words to clarify the system of making this kind of deduction to the Malaysian individuals. The significance is, the point at which we need to â€Å"train† someone, we ought to begin from the earliest starting point of his life. Back to the point, Malaysia comprise of increasingly more than 28. 3 million of populace and isolated into in excess of 50 ethnic arbitrarily, and furthermore comprise a different accept and religion. Nonetheless, they accept that they live in a quiet and amicability nation that no separation as per their ethnicity since they are in â€Å"one country state†. We will compose a custom article test on Making Patriotism Trough Primary School Education or on the other hand any comparative subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Along these lines, this mean the prevailing through the instruction ready to abrogated this kind of reasoning. Elementary school, is the principal medium to instruct the â€Å"fresh citizen† so as to make the resident who love their nation. Essentially, Malaysia had two distinctive primary school that can be gap to three classifications. There are â€Å"Sekolah Kebangsaan (SK)† which show all Malaysian understudy with â€Å"no explicit priority† and â€Å"Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (SJK)† which we can partition to two, there are â€Å"Sekolah Jenis Kebangsan Cina (SJKC)† for the Malaysian Chinese and â€Å"Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Tamil (SJKT)† for the Malaysian Indian. For in a flash, there is no obstructions to make this nationalists even the school are isolated. The inquiry is, how do Malaysia do to defeated this issue? In this article, I will uncovered how, through the investigation of Literacy, Art and â€Å"Spiritual and Morality† that instructing to the â€Å"fresh citizen† in a grade school, add to the making of a country. More than learning the dialects, proficiency instructing in grade school likewise expected to think the primary layer of Malaysian history to the primary school understudy. This shows, in the ages of seven until twelve years of age, the students are uncover about the start of country state through language and history. Additionally, the education isn't restricted. It is comprise of entire component of study. What's more, it isn't just practices in the school, yet additionally out from the instructing and learning meeting. For instance, â€Å"Bahasa Melayu† is the necessary subject that educating in a wide range of school. The prospectus of this subject, isn't just worry in perusing, syntax, perception or creation, however the intend to show this subject, is to presented to the learning of the main dialects and furthermore the different ethnicity of Malaysia. Indeed, dialects is one of the â€Å"main course† in making the country. Accordingly, this subject are dependable and help a lot. What's more, the proficiency likewise joined the â€Å"General History† instructing through a similar subject. For models Gurindam and Pantun which known as the custom of the Malay, additionally find out about the diverse of Ethnic, Traditional Wearing, Festival, etc. From the contention, this shows the proficiency instructing in grade school by implication, help the understudies to know the Malaysian in the best medium. Besides, I might want to remain with the most best methodology in addition and catch the eye of the â€Å"Fresh Citizen† who are have the constrained data of the â€Å"nation state†. Through the â€Å"Art† considers, this â€Å"Upstart Citizen† will effortlessly lead to the enthusiasm. In an elementary school, the majority of the subjects educating are associated with craftsmanship. In this manner craftsmanship isn't constrained to the subject of Painting and Music. It is remembered for the prospectus of the other subject. However, the inquiry is, how far this subject can add to the formed of country state?. It sort of drivel when discussing the â€Å"Malaysian Administration† to the child who are not reached â€Å"Puberty† obviously. Be that as it may, we can show them the convention and ethnicity. How? By subject work of art craftsmanship, there are prospectus on painting the banner of â€Å"traditional wearing† and the banner of â€Å"Malaysian tranquil state†, â€Å" Malaysian Festival†, etc. While, in Music subject, the students sing a tune from 1Malaysia culture Language, for example, tune of â€Å"SuriRam† the Malay epic tune, â€Å"Surang Gani† the Tamil melody present the indian Malaysian, â€Å"Wo Hen How† the Mandarins tune present Chinese ethnic and other ethnic tunes. The best part is, during school get together, they are required to sing the national hymn â€Å"Negaraku†, the state hymn and their school melody. As we probably am aware the music is one of the appealing medium to convey knead. Along these lines the â€Å"Negaraku† or other enthusiastic melody can be the medium to teach the â€Å"Upstart Citizen† to be one of the state darling. It is dependable demonstrate that the workmanship subject in grade school, give the huge effect on elevate and add to the country state. Next, through the otherworldly and profound quality subject, for example, â€Å"Pendidikan Agama Islam†, â€Å"Pendidkan Moral†, and â€Å"Pendidikan Sivik† the students are instructed about the positive worth, for example, appreciative, nationalism, love, helping one another, dedicated, and so forth. This shows the this subject isn't just spotlight on the religion absolutely, at the same time, the understudies are presented to turn into the better resident of Malaysia. To go trough individually, â€Å"Pendidikan Agama Islam† fundamentally show the â€Å"religion needed† to the Muslim. There is commonly about â€Å"Fardhu Ain† and â€Å"Fardhu Kifayah† which every one of this showing worry on the essential â€Å"Muslim Ummah† that worry to the â€Å"Islamic Lifestyle† that shows the great mentality. â€Å"Pendidikan Moral† is the subject that instruct the Morality of being the productive member of society in term of habits and sound way of life. While â€Å"Pendidikan Sivik† is instructing about the urban habits in a nation. The similitude of this three subject are, its mean to â€Å"Brainwash† the â€Å"Fresh Citizen† to be a resident that have a â€Å"Good Manners†, in a roundabout way, its add to the building up the habits of the resident in a country state. To summarize, the essential training are the best time to molded the disapproved of its resident so as to be the country state in light of the fact that the â€Å"Fresh citizen† are progressively simpler to adjust the new data and can remain alongside the new condition . Malaysia got a different ethnicity and have the isolated grade school, yet, its no mean the soul of oneself having a place with Malaysia can't be create. The prospectus educating in all elementary school is by all accounts the equivalent. The Literacy, Art and Spiritual and Morality, appears through this instructed of subject in grade school can deliver the resident that affection their country state. Extra Reference 1) Ayop, M, R,. (2011) Gagasan 1Malaysia : Kesinambungan Bina Negara-Bangsa : Gempita Maju Sdn. Bhd. , Selangor. D. E 2) Imran A.

Saturday, July 25, 2020

Sample TOEFL Multiple Choice Essay Reasons for Working

Sample TOEFL Multiple Choice Essay Reasons for Working Sample TOEFL Multiple Choice EssayThe QuestionPeople in society work inmany different settings, and for a variety of reasons. What do you think is the main reasonwhy people have jobs?to feel happier about their livesto save money for the futureto develop new skillsUse specific examples and details to support your answer.Special Offer: TOEFL Essay Evaluation and ScoringYou can now sign up to have your practice essays evaluated and scored by the author of this page. This service is a great way to learn how you will do before test day and how you can best prepare for the big day. Sign up today.The Sample EssayOnly a very narrow minded person would suggest that making money is the sole reason why people go to work each day. Personally, I believe that people find jobs to feel happier about their daily lives. I feel this way for two reasons, which I will explore in the following essay. First of all, having a job gives our life a sense of purpose, which is good for our mental health. The ob jectives of our job are something to strive for each day, and make it easy to establish both long and short term goals. Without a job, people often feel that their life lacks a sense of purpose. My own experience is a compelling example of this. In 2008, after ten years of working in a fast-paced corporate environment, I was laid off from my job. Even though I was financially secure and did not need to get another position right away I felt extremely depressed because I did not have an official job. Pursuing my hobbies was fun, but I lacked something to strive for each day. This is because at work I had always been given sales objectives and profit objectives to work towards and without those I felt depressed. Accomplishing professional goals always gave me a great sense of satisfaction. Secondly, jobs give us opportunities to meet new people on a regular basis, which can provide us with a sense of happiness. People who are unemployed interact mostly with their family and old friend s, which can sometimes be boring. When I was in high school, I worked in a local supermarket. Although the job did not give me a very high salary, I often look back on that experience with fondness; indeed, in many ways it was the best job I have ever had. I was very happy to chat with the eclectic assortment of customers who came in each day. They all came from radically different backgrounds than me, and as a result it was stimulating to learn about their lives. Even though I now work at a job that pays me a much higher wage, I do miss my low-paying supermarket job sometimes. In conclusion, I strongly believe that one of the main reasons people work is to feel better about their lives. This is because a job gives us goals to strive for, and it can also give us opportunities to make connections with interesting people. (392 words)Note:This is a sample TOEFL essay written by a native speaker. It follows ourTOEFL Writing templatesfor independent essays. If it is useful, please remem ber that we havemany more sample essaysfor you to read!

Friday, May 22, 2020

Women s Attitudes Towards Women - 1538 Words

Women in China: An Exploration of Women in Chinese Society as told through Wild Swans The Chinese have long been noted for the objectification and discrimination of women in their society. From foot binding, to paying for brides, to the view of women as second-class citizens, the Chinese have maintained a poor relationship in the way they treat women. Wild Swans examines China’s attitudes towards women by demonstrating the different social, political, and moral standards her (Chang’s) mother, grandmother, and herself were held to throughout their various stages of life. The changes that occur throughout the novel are of grand importance of understanding communist China and the way women are viewed today. In the time that Wild Swans takes place (1870-1978) a significant number of changes occur regarding China’s attitudes towards women, as their political system changes, in a way that allows women more freedom, and independence from their male counterparts. The book opens on Jung Chang discussing the chaos her Grandmother’s experienced in stating, â€Å"At the age of fifteen my grandmother became the concubine of a warlord general, the police chief of a tenuous national government of China† (Chang 21). She describes these changes in a very objective way in order to relate back to the fact that her grandmother was viewed as more of an object than a person. Chang continues to report back on Chinese values at the time such as the importance of filial piety, which is theShow MoreRelatedBlack Women s Attitudes Towards Abortion1350 Words   |  6 PagesStatistics about black women in relation to abortion and maternal mortality have been extremely low (Lynxwiler Gay, 1997). This is due to depiction of black women’s attitudes towards abortion (Lynxwiler Gay, 1997). For many years no one knew how black women felt towards abortion because no one studied it (Lynxwiler Gay, 1997). Black women were often left out of the co nversation when it came to talking about abortion and maternal mortality. Many studies focused on Black Women and maternal mortalityRead MoreCarl Jung s Attitude Towards Women1786 Words   |  8 Pagesthat spirits visited her at night. When the family moved to Laufen his mother was hospitalized due to an unknown physical ailment. Jung was sent to live with his mother s unmarried sister, but was later sent back home to his father. The stressful relationship with his mother in his early life influenced Jung’s attitude towards women, one he describes as being â€Å"of innate unreliability. This was a view that he later referred to as the handicap I started off with. As a childRead MoreChange of Attitudes Toward the Role and Status of Women During the 1920s and 1930s540 Words   |  3 PagesChange of Attitudes Toward the Role and Status of Women During the 1920s and 1930s At the beginning of the 1920s all women over 30 and all women property owners over the age of 21 had been enfranchised by the Representation of the Peoples Act that was passed by the government in 1918. This act paved the way for the major change in the role and status of women that occurred during the nineteen twenties and thirties. Political change came first for British Women with newRead MoreHamlet s Attitude Towards Women Through His Treatment Of Ophelia848 Words   |  4 PagesWhat is revealed about Hamlet’s attitude towards women through his treatment of Ophelia? The character of Ophelia is most often represented in art and literature as morose, frail or and often dead. The fact that these are the traits residual in an audience’s memory since the conception of the character reflects something of her representation and her traditional interpretation. Typical to Shakespeare’s work, the play features a vein of ambiguity, which runs throughout the plot. One of the great ambiguitiesRead MorePregnant African American Women s Attitudes Toward Perinatal Depression Prevention1629 Words   |  7 PagesIn this paper I will be critiquing the research done by â€Å"Goodman, S. H., Dimidjian, S., Williams, K. G. (2013). Pregnant African American women’s attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention†. This is an interesting article in the fact that it goes into details on depression in African American women and how they react towards the prevention of depression perinatal. In this critique, I will discuss the questions that they are asking to be answered as well as if the writers show a well-roundedRead MorePregnant African American Women s Attitudes Towards Perinatal Depression Prevention1108 Words   |  5 PagesKristen Williams, and Sona Dimidjian hypothesis in â€Å"Pregnant African American Women’s attitudes Towards Perinatal Depression Prevention† is that African American women are less likely to seek help for depression either after the birth of their child or right before the child is born specifically low income women. It states that although perinatal depression is common for women it is very high among African American women than any other race. II. Methods: The methods utilized as part of this researchRead MorePregnant African American Women s Attitudes Toward Perinatal Depression Prevention2291 Words   |  10 PagesAfrican American Women’s Attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention†. I think it is important because it is not uncommon for women to go through depression either right before the child is born or after the child is born. My question for this is why would you seek or not seek perinatal depression prevention. II. Literature Review: Perinatal depression is common in pregnancies whether regardless of race. Although, it is higher among African American low income women. Depression or anxietyRead MoreCosmetic Companies Design Ads Change Women s Attitudes Towards Products Essay1997 Words   |  8 Pagesrevenue continuously bombard women with ads featuring beautiful women selling cosmetics and other skincare products thereby increasing the pressure put on women to look their best. It is estimated that women in the U.S. will spend 12 to 15 thousand dollars a year on beauty services (Newsom, 2011.) and over 62 billion dollars on cosmetics annually in 2016 (IBISWorld, 2016). According to Thompson (n.d.), cosmetic companies design ads to change women’s attitudes towards products. This encourages themRead MoreAssociations Between Religious Personality Dimensions And Implicit Homosexual Prejudice847 Words   |  4 Pagesreligiosity increases, self-reported attitudes towards homosexuals becomes more negative. The authors of this study mention that the focus of the study was not to research any forms of overt discrimination, any form of hate crimes, or other antisocial behavior towards gay men and lesbians. The study s hypothesis comes from social-personality psychologist Gordon Allport s observation that in most religions, it is encouraged to demonstrate unconditional love towards others; however, there are individualsRead MoreAnalysis Of Cat In The Rain By Ernest Hemingway1244 Words   |  5 Pagesbetween men and women varied across the world in the 1920’s, with certain countries embracing women within society, yet other countries saw women as nothing more than homemakers. In his time in Europe, Ernest Hemingway witnessed the utmost respect men had towards women. Yet when Hemingway arrived back in America he saw the misogynistic attitudes towards women and their movement for suffrage. Ernest Hemingway’s â€Å"Cat in the rain† is the adventure of American women se eking suffrage in the 1920’s, alongside

Friday, May 8, 2020

Utopia By John Steinbeck And Utopia - 1777 Words

Thomas More, born of a wealthy family in the 16th century, was not only a political figure but also a humanist and a scholar. He studied at Oxford before training to become a lawyer and eventually becoming part of the kings’ council. He is most notorious though not for his work at the court but rather for his writing, more specifically his description of a fictional, highly romanticized society named Utopia. In Utopia, More explored not only a different, but also idealized, vision of society in which households are more stable, people have equal standards of living and opportunities, and men and women are on more equal footings than in the English counterpart of More’s time. By comparing those features of Utopia with the reality of English society in the 16th century, it is obvious that More wrote more than a fantasy piece, but rather set out to imagine a society without the flaws he could identify within his. From the organisation of the household, the political syst em, the homogeneity of its citizen and the relationship between men and women, More’s Utopia presents an interesting critique of the English society at the time. More’s Utopia presents an extremely different vision of society than the 16th century England from which he came from. The Utopian system is centered on the household and the community. Every household, lead by the eldest male, is comprised of between ten and sixteen adults and all the children. Women would marry into their husbands’ familiesShow MoreRelatedThe Grapes Of Wrath By John Steinbeck1189 Words   |  5 Pagesafter being released John Steinbeck’s book â€Å"The Grapes of Wrath† was banned because many critics viewed the novel as promoting communist propaganda, or socialist ideas. The ideas that many of these critics point to is Steinbeck’s depiction of the Big Banks/ Businesses as monsters, the comparison of Government camps to a utopia in contrast of the makeshift â€Å"Hoovervilles,† and the theme of the community before the individual, In his novel â€Å"The Grapes of Wrath† John Steinbeck uses the struggle of migrantsRe ad MoreGatsby As A Utopian Society Essay1236 Words   |  5 Pagesbeyond America. As it symbolizes the death of an equal, Utopian American society, Gatsby’s death parallels the immediate setting descriptions in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorne notes that, despite their original goals of a virtuous Utopia, the founders of the colony â€Å"invariably recognized it† as necessary to, first and foremost, â€Å"allot a portion of the virgin soil† for both a prison and a cemetery (Hawthorne, 39). This colony cannot be a Utopian society, because as Hawthorne illustratesRead More Responsibilities Essay572 Words   |  3 Pagesand Men, John Steinbeck creates symbolism through Georges journey leading him to the eventual realization that everyone has responsibilities. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Many themes occur throughout the novel, but one can apply to everyone: we all have tasks we must perform in order to achieve a better life. Initially, this theme becomes apparent through Candy and his dog, quot; That dog aint no good to himself. I wisht somebodyd shoot me if I got old an a cripplequot; (Steinbeck 45). TheRead MoreSociety In John Steinbecks Anthem, By Ayn Rand874 Words   |  4 Pagesof persons associated together for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. Both Ayn Rand and John Steinbeck write about society and its burden on individuals or the individual’s burden to it. Ayn Rand believes that society is a burden to an individual and that said individual owes nothing to society. John Steinbeck believes that the individual can be a burden to society, but that society should still be held responsible for the individual. Both authorsRead MoreInterpretations Of The American Dream1718 Words   |  7 Pagesinterpretations and instructions along the very term ‘American Dream’ ranging from its definition, the different concepts of people about it and its ultimate aim to the doubts upon its realization. Alfonzo Reyas, a Mexican humanist, says that â€Å"America is a utopia†¦ it is the figure of human hope† (qtd. In Parrington Jr. Preface). James Truslow Adams, who was firstly coined the phrase in his 1931 book The Epic of America, however, defined it as a â€Å"dream of a land in which life should be better and richer andRead MoreOf Mice and Men: Burdens of Responsibility Essay1041 Words   |  5 Pageslittle place. He does this because he knows it makes Lennie happy and he wants Lennies last thoughts to be of his ideal world not terror. George then shoots Lennie in the back of the head doing whats best for everyone, and Lennie dies in a state of utopia, his reward. An example of Curleys wifes hopes is when she finally finds a person around the ranch who sees her not as an object of lust but someone to talk to. This person is Lennie. Of course he subsequently snaps her neck when they are both inRead MoreCompare And Contrast The Great Gatsby And Of Mice And Men733 Words   |  3 Pagesmature, and became aware that superhuman abilities are beyond their capacity. What would have happened if everyone continued to believe in their wildest fantasies beyond childhood? The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck explores this idea in distinctive detail. Gatsby looks into a mysterious man’s life in the 1920s and the secrets behind the extravagant parties he threw for all but himself, and his longing for a true love that consumed his sensibility. Of MiceRead MoreThe American Dream : A Concept Known By All1465 Words   |  6 Pages[could] grow graciously old, warmed by the radiance of well-washed children and grandchildren (Steinbeck). George and Lennie from John Steinbeck s Of Mice and Men let a dream similar to this lead them through their lives; they planned to get [t heir] jack together and . . . have a little house and a couple of acres an a cow and some pigs . . . (Steinbeck 8). The crave of such a utopia had been continually demonstrated since the discovery of America. Walt Whitman s poem I Hear AmericaRead MoreThe Steinbeck s The Grapes Of Wrath By John Steinbeck4043 Words   |  17 PagesSet in the swallowing depression of the 1920’s, The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck provides a hallowing, realistic view into the plight of the proletariat farmer and the exploitation that was all too common during the Great Depression by major corporations. Steinbeck’s literary work serves as a window into the world of the great depression by not only providing a narrative history of the era, but also giving faces to the nameless victims through the characters of Tom Joad, the lead protagonistRead MoreThe American Dream in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck712 Words   |  3 PagesThe American Dream in Of Mice and Men The American dream is the traditional social ideals of the US, such as equality, democracy, and material prosperity. In the Novella Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck the American Dream plays a huge role in almost every character’s lives, and the different version of the American dream for each individual has affected both their lives and the outcome of this novella. The American dream plays a role that makes each character more hard working and persevered

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Return Midnight Chapter 38 Free Essays

string(144) " that were meant to either imprison someone inside them like the bars of a cel , or to – pin them into the strange sand beneath her feet\." Damon had stopped and was kneeling behind an enormous broken tree branch. Stefan pul ed both girls to him and caught them so that they al three landed just behind his brother. Elena found herself staring at a very large tree trunk. We will write a custom essay sample on The Return: Midnight Chapter 38 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Stillas big as it was, it was nowhere near as large as she had been expecting. It was true; the four of them certainly couldn’t have held hands around it. But in the back of her mind had been lurking images of moons and trees and trunks that were as tal as skyscrapers, in which a star bal could be hidden on any â€Å"floor,†in any â€Å"room.† This was simply a grand oak tree trunk sitting in a sort of fairy circle – perhaps twenty feet in diameter on which no dead leaf had strayed. It was a paler color than the loam they had been running on, and even sparkled in a few places. Overal , Elena was relieved. More, she could even see the star bal . She’d feared – among other things – that it might be up too high to climb, that it might be so entangled with roots or branches that today, certainly after hundreds or even thousands of years, it would be impossible to chop out. But there it was, the greatest star bal that had ever been, ful y the size of a beach bal , and it nestled freely in the first crutch of the tree. Her mind was racing ahead. They’d done it; they’d found the star bal . But how much time would it take to get it back to where Sage was? Automatical y, she glanced at her compass and saw to her surprise that the needle now pointed southwest – in other words, back to the Gatehouse. That was a thoughtful touch of Sage’s. And perhaps they didn’t have to go through the trials backward; they could simply use their Master Key to go back to Fel ‘s Church, and then†¦Well, Mrs. Flowers would know what to do with it. If it came to that, maybe they could just blackmail Her, whoever She was, to go away forever in exchange for the star bal . Although – could they live with the thought that she might do this again – and again – and again to other towns? Even as she planned, Elena watched the expressions of her comrades: the childlike wonder on Bonnie’s heart-shaped face; the keen assessment in Stefan’s eyes; Damon’s dangerous smile. They were viewing their hard-won reward, at last. But she couldn’t look for too long. Things had to be done. Even as they watched, the star bal brightened, showing such bril iant, incandescent colors that Elena was half-blinded. She shielded her eyes just as she heard Bonnie inhaling sharply. â€Å"What?†Stefan asked, a hand in front of his eyes, which, of course were much more sensitive to light than human eyes. â€Å"Someone’s using it right now!†Bonnie replied. â€Å"When it went bright like that, it sent out Power! A long, long way out!† â€Å"Things are heating up in what’s left of poor old Fel ‘s Church,†said Damon, who was staring intently upward at the branches above him. â€Å"Don’t talk about it like that!†Bonnie exclaimed. â€Å"It’s our home. And now we can final y defend it!†Elena could practical y see what Bonnie was thinking: families embracing; neighbors smiling at neighbors again; the entire town working to fix the destruction. This is how great tragedies sometimes happen. People with a single goal, yet who are not in sync. Assumptions. Presumptions. And, maybe, most important of al , the failure to sit down and talk. Stefan tried, even though Elena could see that he was Stillblind from the bril iance of the star bal . He said quietly, â€Å"Let’s talk this over for a while and brainstorm ways to get it – â€Å" But Bonnie was laughing at him, though not unkindly. She said, â€Å"I can get up there as fast as a squirrel. Al I need is someone strong to catch it when I knock it down. I know I can’t climb down with it; I’m not that sil y. Come on, you guys, let’s go!† That’s how it happened. Different personalities, different modes of thinking. And one laughing, light-headed girl, who didn’t have a precognition when it was needed. Elena, who was envying Meredith the fighting stave, didn’t even see the beginning. She was watching Stefan, who was blinking rapidly to get his eyesight back. And Bonnie was scrambling as lightly as she had boasted, up on top of the dead tree branch that sheltered them. She even gave them a little laughing salute just before she leaped into the barren, sparkling circle around the tree. Then microseconds stretched infinitely. Elena felt her eyes slowly getting wider, even though she knew they were flying open. She saw Stefan leisurely reach across her to try to twine his fingers around Bonnie’s leg, even though she knew that what she was seeing was a lightning-fast grab for the petite girl’s ankle. She even heard Damon’s instantaneous telepathy: No, little fool! as if he were speaking the words in his accustomed lazy tones of superiority. Then, Stillin slow motion, Bonnie’s knees bent and she launched into the air above the circle. But she never touched the ground. Somehow, a black streak, stunningly fast even in the slow-motion horror film that Elena was watching, landed where Bonnie would have landed. And then Bonnie was being thrown, being hurled too fast for Elena’s eyes to track, outside of the barren circle and then there was a dul thud – too fast for Elena’s mind to track as being Bonnie’s landing. Quite clearly, she heard Stefan cry â€Å"Damon!†in a terrible voice. And then Elena saw the thin dark objects – like curving lances – that were already shooting downward. Another thing her eyes couldn’t fol ow. When her vision adjusted, she saw that they were long, curved black branches, spaced evenly around the tree like thirty spider legs, thirty long spears that were meant to either imprison someone inside them like the bars of a cel , or to – pin them into the strange sand beneath her feet. You read "The Return: Midnight Chapter 38" in category "Essay examples" â€Å"Pin†was a good word. Elena liked the sound of it. Even as she was staring at the sharp recurved barbs on the branches, meant to keep anything caught by them held permanently in the ground, she was thinking of Damon’s annoyance if a shaft had pierced his leather jacket. He would curse at them, and Bonnie would try to pretend he hadn’t – and†¦ She was close enough by now to see that it wasn’t as simple as that. The branch, which was proper javelin size, had gone through Damon’s shoulder, which must hurt like hel , in addition to having splattered a blood drop right at the corner of his mouth. But far more annoying than that was the fact that he had closed his eyes against her. That was how Elena thought of it. He was shutting them out deliberately – maybe because he was angry; maybe because of the pain in his shoulder. But it reminded her of the steel wal feeling she’d gotten the last time she’d tried to touch his mind – and, damn, couldn’t he tell he was scaring them? â€Å"Open your eyes, Damon,†she said, flushing, because that was what he wanted her to say. He real y was the greatest manipulator of al . â€Å"Open your eyes, I said!†Now she was real y irritated. â€Å"Don’t play possum, because you’re not fooling anyone, and we’ve real y had enough!†She was about to shake him hard when something lifted her into the air, into Stefan’s line of vision. Stefan was in pain, but surely not as badly as Damon, so she was looking back to curse Damon when Stefan said harshly, â€Å"Elena, he can’t!† For just the tiniest fleeting instant the words sounded like nonsense to her. Not only garbled, but meaningless, like saying someone couldn’t stop their appendix from doing – whatever it was an appendix did. That was al the respite that she got, and then she had to deal with what her eyes were showing her. Damon wasn’t pinned by his shoulder. He’d been staked, just slightly to the left of center of his torso. Exactly where his heart was. Words drifted back to her. Words that someone had once said – although she couldn’t remember who right now. â€Å"You can’t kill a vampire so easily. We only die if you stake us through the heart†¦.† Die? Damon die? This was some kind of mistake†¦ â€Å"Open your eyes!†Ã¢â‚¬ Elena, he can’t!† But she knew, without knowing how, that Damon wasn’t dead. She wasn’t surprised that Stefan didn’t know it; it was a hum on a private frequency between her and Damon. â€Å"Come on, hurry, give me your axe,†she said, so desperately, and with such an air of knowledge that Stefan handed it over wordlessly, and obeyed when she told him to steady the curving spider-leg branch from above and below. Then with a few quick strokes of the axe she cut through the black branch that was thick enough in circumference that she couldn’t have clasped her fingers around it. It was done in a spurt of pure adrenaline, but she knew it awed Stefan and al owed him to let her continue doing it. When she was finished, she had a loose spider-leg branch that drooped back to the tree, anchored to nothing – and something that looked more like a proper stake in Damon. It wasn’t until she began pul ing upward on the stake that a horrified Stefan made her stop. â€Å"Elena! Elena, I wouldn’t lie to you! This is just what these branches are for. For intruders who are vampires. Look, love – see.†He was showing her another of the spider legs that was anchored in the sand, and the barbs on it. Just like the backward-facing tines of a primitive stone arrowhead. â€Å"These branches are meant to be like this,†Stefan was saying. â€Å"And if you pul ed up on it hard enough, you’d just – just end up pul ing out chunks of – his heart.† Elena froze. She wasn’t sure she real y could understand the words – she couldn’t al ow herself to, or she might picture it. But it didn’t matter. â€Å"I’l destroy it some other way,†she said shortly, looking at Stefan but not able to see the true green of his eyes because of the olive light. â€Å"You wait. Just wait and watch. I’l find a Wings power that wil dissolve this – this – damned abomination.†She could think of many other words to cal the stake, but she had to stay in some sort of control. â€Å"Elena.†Stefan whispered her name as if he could barely get it out. Even in the twilight she could see the tears on his cheeks. He continued, nonverbal y, Elena, look at his closed eyes. This Tree is a vicious killer, with wood like nothing I’ve ever seen, but I’ve heard about it. It’s†¦it’s spreading. Inside him. â€Å"Inside him?†Elena repeated stupidly. Along his arteries and veins – and his nerves – everything connected to his heart. He’s – oh, God, Elena, just look at his eyes! Elena looked. Stefan had knelt and gently pul ed up the lids of Damon’s eyes and Elena began screaming. Deep in the fathomless pupils that had held endless night skies ful of stars, there was a glimmer – not of starlight, but of green. It seemed to glow with its own hel ish luminescence. Stefan looked at her with agony and compassion. And now, with one gentle pass, Stefan was closing those eyes – forever, she knew he was thinking. Everything had become strange and dreamlike. Nothing made sense anymore. Stefan was careful y laying Damon’s head down – he was letting Damon go. Even in her fuzzy world of nonsense Elena knew she could never do that. And then, a miracle happened. Elena heard a voice in her mind that wasn’t hers. All this is rather unexpected. I acted, for once, without thinking. And this is my reward. The voice was a hum on their private frequency, Damon’s and hers. Elena ripped herself away from Stefan, who was trying to restrain her, and fel , grasping Damon’s shoulders with her hands. I knew it! I knew you couldn’t be dead! It was only then that she realized that her face was dripping wet, and she used her soft leather sleeve to wipe it. Oh, Damon, you gave me such a scare! Don’t you ever, ever do that again! I think I can give my word on that, Damon sent – in different tones than his usual ones – sober but at the same time whimsical. But you have to give me something in return. Yes, of course, Elena said. Just let me get some of my hair off my neck. It worked best like this when Stefan was lying down – when we were carrying him out on his pallet from the prison – Not that, Damon told her. For once, angel, I don’t want your blood. I need you to give me your most solemn word that you will try to be brave. If it helps at all, I know that females are better than males at this sort of thing. They’re less cowardly at facing – what you have to face now. Elena didn’t like the tone of these words. The dizziness that was making her lips numb was traveling al over her body. There was nothing to be brave about. Damon could stand pain. She would find a Wings power that would obliterate al that wood that was poisoning him. It might hurt, but it would save his life. Don’t talk to me like that! she snapped harshly, before she could remember to be gentle. Everything had begun to float, and she couldn’t even remember why she had to be gentle, but there was a reason. Still, it was difficult, when she was using every ounce of her concentration and strength to search for a Wings power she had never heard of. Purification? Would that take away the wood or would it just leave Damon without his wicked smile? There was no harm in trying it, anyway, and she was getting desperate – because Damon’s face was so pale. But even the stance for Wings of Purification eluded her. Suddenly, a huge shudder – a convulsion – went through Damon’s entire body. Elena heard broken words behind her. â€Å"Love, love – you real y have to let him go. He’s living in – in intolerable pain, just because you’re keeping him here,†the voice said, and it was Stefan’s. Stefan, who would never lie to her. For just an instant Elena wavered, but then a blazing rage came rushing up through her body. It gave her the strength to cry hoarsely, â€Å"I†¦ won’t! I won’t ever let him go! Damn you, Damon, you have to fight! Let me help you! My blood – it’s special. It’l give you strength. You drink it!† She fumbled for her knife. Her blood was magical. Maybe if she gave enough, it would give Damon the strength to fight off the wooden fibers that were Stillspreading through his body. Elena slashed at her throat. Maybe subconsciously she avoided doing more than nicking her carotid artery, but if so it was entirely subconsciously. She simply reached down, found a metal knife, and with one sweep set the blood to gushing out. Bright red arterial blood, that even in the semi-darkness was the color of hope. â€Å"Here, Damon. Here! Drink this. As much as you want – al you need to heal yourself.†She got into the best position that she could, hearing but not hearing Stefan’s horrified gasp behind her at the recklessness of her slashing, not heeding his grip on her. But – Damon didn’t drink. Not even the heady blood of his Princess of Darkness – and how did the phrase go? It was like rocket fuel compared to the gasoline found in other girls’veins. Now it just ran out of the sides of his mouth. It flowed onto his pale face, soaking his black shirt and pooling in his leather jacket. No†¦ Damon, Elena sent, please. I’m – begging you. Please. I’m begging you for me, for Elena. Please drink. We can do this – together. Damon didn’t move. Blood spil ed into the mouth she’d opened and it fil ed and spil ed out again. It was as if Damon were taunting her, saying, â€Å"You wanted me to give up human blood? Well, I have – forever.† Oh, dear God, please†¦ Elena was dizzier than ever now. Outside events passed dimly around her, like an ocean that only slightly bobbed a person out deep in the swell s. She was entirely focused on Damon. But one thing she did feel. Her bravery – Damon had been wrong about that. Huge sobs were rising from somewhere deep inside her. She had made Stefan let go of her and now she couldn’t hold herself up any longer. She fel right on top of her blood and Damon’s body. Her cheek fel against his cheek. And his cheek was cold. Even under the blood, it was cold. Elena never knew when the hysterics began. She simply found herself shrieking and sobbing, beating on Damon’s shoulders, cursing him. She had never properly cursed him before, not directly to his face. As for the shrieking, that wasn’t just a sound. She was once again screaming at him to find some way to fight. And final y, she began the promises. Promises that deep in her heart, she now knew were lies. She was going to find a way to fix him in a moment. She already felt a new Wings power coming to save him. Anything so as to not face the truth. â€Å"Damon? Please?†It was an interlude in the shrieking, when she was talking softly in her new husky, hoarse voice. â€Å"Damon, just do one thing for me. Just squeeze my hand. I know you can do that. Just squeeze one of my hands.† But there was no pressure on either of her hands. Only blood that was turning sticky. And then the miracle happened and she once again heard Damon’s voice – very faintly – in her head. Elena? Don’t†¦cry, darling. It’s not†¦as bad as Stefan said. I don’t feel much of anything, except on my face. I†¦feel your tears. No more weeping†¦please, angel. Because of the miracle, Elena steadied herself. He’d cal ed Stefan â€Å"Stefan†and not â€Å"little brother.†But she had other things to think about right now. He could Stillfeel things on his face! This was important information, valuable information. Elena immediately cupped his cheeks with her hands and kissed him on the lips. I just kissed you. I’m kissing you again. Can you feel that? Forever, Elena, Damon said. I’ll†¦take that with me. It’s part of me now†¦do you see? Elena didn’t want to see. She kissed his lips – icy cold – again. And again. She wanted to give him something else. Something good to think about. Damon, do you remember when we first met? At school, after the lights went out, when I was measuring for the Haunted House decorations. I almost let you kiss me then – before I even knew your name – when you just came drifting out of the darkness. Damon surprised her by answering immediately. Yes†¦and you†¦you astonished me by being the first girl I couldn’t Influence right away. We had†¦fun together – didn’t we? Some good times? We went to a party†¦and we danced together. I’ll take that with me too. Through her daze, Elena had one thought. Don’t confuse him anymore. They’d gone to that â€Å"party†only to save Stefan’s life. She told him, We had fun. You’re a good dancer. Imagine us waltzing! Damon sent slowly, fuzzily, I’m sorry†¦I’ve been so horrible lately. Tell†¦her that. Bonnie. Tell her†¦ Elena steadied herself. I’ll tell her. I’m kissing you again. Can you feel me kissing you? It was a rhetorical question, so she got a shock, when Damon only answered slowly and sleepily. Did I†¦take a vow to tell you the truth? Yes, Elena lied instantly. She needed the truth from him. Then†¦no, to be honest†¦I can’t. I don’t seem to have†¦a body now. It’s comfortable and warm, and nothing hurts anymore. And – I almost feel as if I’m not alone. Don’t laugh. You’re not alone! Oh, Damon, don’t you know that? I’ll never, ever let you be alone. Elena choked, wondering how to make him believe her. Just for a few more seconds†¦now. Here, she sent in a telepathic whisper, I’ll give you my precious secret. I’ll never tell anyone else. Do you remember the motel we stayed in on our road trip, and how everyone – even you – wondered what happened that night? A†¦motel? A road trip? He was sounding very unsure now. Oh†¦yes. I remember. And†¦the next morning – wondering. Because Shinichi took your memories, Elena said, hoping that hateful name would revivify Damon. But it didn’t. Like Shinichi, Damon was done with the world now. Elena leaned her cheek against his cold and bloody one. I held you, darling, just like this – well, almost like this. All night. That was all you wanted, to not feel alone. There was a long pause and Elena began to panic in the few parts of her that were not numb or already hysterical. But then the words came slowly to her. Thank you†¦Elena. Thank you†¦for telling me your precious secret. Yes, and I’ll tell you something even more precious. No one is alone. Not really. No one is ever alone. You’re with me†¦so warm†¦nothing to worry about anymore†¦ Nothing more, Elena promised him. And I’ll always be with you. No one is alone; I promise it. Elena†¦things are beginning to feel strange now. Not pain. But I have to tell you†¦what I know you already know†¦. How I fell in love with you†¦you’ll remember, won’t you? You won’t forget me? Forget you? How could I ever forget you? But Damon was speaking on and suddenly Elena knew that he couldn’t hear her, not even by telepathy anymore. Will you remember? For me? Just that†¦I loved once – just once, really, in my whole life. Can you remember that I loved you? That makes my life†¦worth†¦something†¦ His voice faded. Elena was so dizzy now. She knew she was Stilllosing blood fast. Too fast. Her mind was not sharp. And she was suddenly shaken by a fresh storm of sobbing. At least she would never yel again – there was no one to yel at. Damon had gone away. He had run away without her. She wanted to fol ow. Nothing was real. Didn’t he understand? She could not imagine a universe, no matter how many dimensions there were, without a Damon in it. There was no world for her, if there was no Damon. He couldn’t do this to her. Neither knowing nor caring what she was doing, she plunged deep, deep into Damon’s mind, wielding her telepathy like a sword, slashing at the wooden connections that she found everywhere. And, at last, she found herself plunging into the very deepest part of him†¦where a little boy, the metaphor for Damon’s unconscious, had once been loaded with chains and set to guard the great stone that Damon kept his feelings locked in. Oh, God, he must be so frightened, she thought. Whatever the cost, he must not be al owed to go away frightened†¦. Now she saw him. The child-Damon. As always, she could see in the sweetly rounded face, the sharp-cheekboned young man that Damon would become, in the wide black eyes, the potential for his look of fathomless darkness. But although he was not smiling, the child’s look was open and welcoming, in a way that Damon’s older self had never been. And the chains†¦the chains were gone. The great stone was gone too. â€Å"I knew you’d come,†the boy whispered, and Elena took him into her arms. Easy, Elena told herself. Easy. He’s not real. He’s what’s left of Damon’s mind, the deepest part of his hindbrain. But Still, he’s even younger than Margaret, and he’s just as soft and warm. No matter what, please God, don’t let him know what’s real y happening to him. But there was knowledge in the wide, dark child eyes that turned up to her face. â€Å"I’m so glad to see you,†he confided. â€Å"I thought that I might never talk to you again. And – he – you know – he left some messages with me. I don’t think he could say anything more, so he sent them to me.† Elena understood. If there was anywhere the wood had not reached, it was into this last part of the brain, the most primitive part. Damon Stillcould speak to her – through this infant. But before she could speak herself, she saw that there were tears in the child’s eyes and then his body spasmed and he bit his lip very hard – to keep from crying out, she guessed. â€Å"Does it hurt?†she asked, trying to believe that it didn’t. Desperate to believe it. â€Å"Not so much.†But he was lying, she realized. Still, he hadn’t shed any tears. He had his pride, this child-Damon. â€Å"I have a special message for you,†he said. â€Å"He told me to tel you that he’l always be with you. And that you’re never alone. That no one is real y alone.† How to cite The Return: Midnight Chapter 38, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

West Side Story Essays - Music Technology, Sound Recording

West Side Story West Side Story West Side Story was one of the best plays that Kean has put on that I have seen. This play just happens to be one of my favorite movies that I have watched over and over again. I basically memerized all the scenes and songs. But of coarse the play has to be shorter then the movie, so certain things had to be cut out and changed a little bit. For example when the song ?America? is sung in the movie, the guys and girls are going against each other, but in the play it was just girls singing to each other. I think the people chosen for the play perfectly fit their characters. The only person I thought that needed a little bit more work on his acting was the guy who played ?Tony?, Shayne Austin. Shayne has a great singing voice, but his acting seemed a tad bit rusty if you ask me. Over all everyone else seemed to be perfect for his or her parts. The play was very upbeat and exciting. There were times you laughed and times you cried. You always wanted to know what was going to happen next. Was there going to be a fight? Was someone going to die? Since the stage is so small not that many props could be used. The props that they did have were good. The fence symbolizied the playground, sowing machine showed the shop Maria worked in, the bed symbolized Maria's room, and the register showed the soda shop. All very good considering the size of the stage. Overall I think that this performance was extremely successful. It got the point across that it doesn't matter what race you are. You should put your differences aside and get to know people. And that's exactly how I feel about life. That everyone should get to know people before they judge them. People need to stop stereo typing others. For example: your Spanish so all you eat is rice and beans, your black so you rob people, and your white so you think your better then everyone else of a different race. All those stereo types are wrong and need to be change and I think this play shows that.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Compare and contrast Sheila and Eric with Mr Mrs Birling Essay Example

Compare and contrast Sheila and Eric with Mr Mrs Birling Essay Example Compare and contrast Sheila and Eric with Mr Mrs Birling Paper Compare and contrast Sheila and Eric with Mr Mrs Birling Paper Essay Topic: Literature An Inspector Calls is a play about and inspector that teaches the Birlings and Gerald Croft that the way they treat other people just because they are a lower class than them is not right. This play was written by J. B. Priestley. The play is set in a 1912 dinning room. Priestley does this to show the differences between capitalist and socialist, conservative and labour. Priestley was trying to show his 1945 audience how things had changed since 1912 and also how some things still need to change. The head of the Birling household is Mr Birling. He is a pompous, self-employed, arrogant man that says he is going to get a knighthood. Also he follows the capitalist idea very strongly and even wants his own son Eric to pay money back. You can see his capitalist ideas when he says these people will soon be asking for the earth this shows he doesnt like the working class asking for anything because if they get what they want they would become more like him and other middle classes. Mr Birling started off the chain of events that leads to Eva Smiths death in September 1910 when he fired her from the Birling factory because she went on strike to get more money. This shows him to be a capitalist, another thing that show him to be this is when he says a man needs to look after himself and as if we were mixed up together community and all that nonsense this shows he follows the old ways of classes and thinks people should know ere they belong. When the Inspector questions him he reacts like the Inspector is doing something disgraceful and stays in denial yes, well, we neednt go into all that and still, I cant accept any responsibility show his denial to the suicide and I dont like that tone and a quite unnecessary question shows his feeling towards the inspector and in the fact the inspector is a lower class than him. Mr Birlings daughter, Sheila is a childish, playful and immature person at the start of the play, but towards the end of the play she matures, becomes more serious and takes responsibility for her own actions so Im really responsible this shows how different she is from Mr Birling in the fact she treats people more like a society. When Sheila finds out about Eva Smiths death and sees the photo she runs off because she thought it was all my fault this shows she cares about lower classes unlike Mr Birling who doesnt care about lower classs well being. Sheila contributes to Eva Smiths death by getting Eva fired from Milwards in 1911. she did this because when Sheila tried on a dress she liked, it looked terrible on her, Eva then held the dress up against herself and it looked good on her and this made her give off a little laugh which makes Sheila very angry so she spoke to the manager and got her fired I had her turned out of a job this shows she was like her father before the inspector came. Her reaction to being questioned by the inspector is that she is scared. Also it made her feel upset, distraught, sympathetic and even makes her feel responsible. This is shown in the stage directions miserable and distressed. This just shows how much she changes from the inspectors visit. At the beginning of the play Mrs Birling is described as an upper class snob that believes herself to be better than everyone else. Mrs Birling, the wife of Mr Birling is also a capitalist and a strong believer in the different classes. Mrs Birlings reactions to the inspectors show is that she was defensive and if I was, what business is it of yours? this shows she doesnt like the inspector questioning her as he is a lower class than her. She was also rude girls of that class.. showing she is snobby and just like Mr Birling. Unlike Sheila she doesnt take responsibility for Evas death I dont think we need to discuss it this helps to show us the differences between the younger and older generation of the family. Mrs Birling is the chairman of the womens committee and this is how she plays a part of Eva Smiths death. Eva who was pretending her name was Daisy go to the committee to try and get some money as she was pregnant, but she said her name was Mrs Birling and this annoyed the real Mrs Birling and used her power to have her request denied. Eric just like his sister accepts responsibility for his part in Eva Smiths death showing again that the younger generation is learning more than the older. Erics involvement in Evas death starts with how much he drinks, he is described as squiffy showing he drinks a lot and is an alcoholic. While on one of his night drinking he meets Eva and gets her pregnant. This links to how Mrs Birling is involved. This helps Mrs b realise whats going on around her as she normally ignores it but I didnt know it was you I never dreamt this shows how much the children are ignored and get up to things they shouldnt. Eric also tried to give Eva some stolen money but she wouldnt accept it as it was stolen. Eric shows his socialist values when he finds out Eva was pregnant with his child and now they were both dead, he starts to take responsibility for what he has done. He also blames his parents for her death you killed them both damn you, damn you speaking to Mrs B and condemning her as she denied helping Eva and his child. In the inspectors final speech, he says there are millions of Eva Smiths and John Smiths this is the inspector way of saying there are a lot of working class people and they have feelings too. He also says we are responsible for each other showing his support for socialism, this is when people look after each other as we are all the same, and how he doesnt follow the class system. Inspector Goole appears to have a power to predict the future they will learn it in fire and blood and anguish showing the inspector knowing that world war one was going to happen and saying the complete opposite of what Mr Birling said earlier on in the play before the inspector came in. At the end of the play, Sheila and Eric have changed the most, they became more socialist and believe that people are important and we should be all treated the same weather were rich or poor. They feel that they are just like Eva Smith as she is young as well and the only difference is she had less money and the way they were brought up. This shows us that the younger generation are learning and that the future is going to change. Mr and Mrs Birling havent changed as they are to selfish and stubborn in there ways to change what they think is right. All they think about is money and even make sure there kids pay back all there money, like when Mr Birling says Eric has to pay every penny of the fifty pound he stole from his office. Because of the capitalist ways of thinking they believe they control the working class. People now can learn from this because we still have some capitalist ways today where in some places men get paid more than women and how we still need to respect each other, still need to put people first and that people are more important than money. People need to be treated fairly and equally to make sure we live in harmony. J. B. Priestley wrote this play to try and get rid of the class system as he thought it was wrong and to try and get people to vote labour as they believe in socialism and treating people equally if they have more money or not.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Using a Focus Word to Help With Pronunciation

Using a Focus Word to Help With Pronunciation Pronunciation can be improved by focusing on the right words. Knowing the difference between content words and function words is the first step. Remember that we stress content words in English as they provide the words that are most important to understanding a sentence. In other words, function words like the prepositions  at, from, or to are not stressed, whereas content words such as the nouns city or investment and main verbs like study or develop are stressed because they are key to understanding. Step 1: Find the Focus Word Once you are familiar with using content words to help with stress and intonation, its time to take it to the next level by choosing a focus word. The focus word (or words in some cases) is the most important word in a sentence. For example: Why didnt you telephone?  I waited all day! In these two sentences, the word telephone is the central focus. Its the key to understanding both sentences. Someone might answer this question by saying: I didnt telephone because I was so busy.   In this case, busy would be the focus word as it provides the main explanation for someone being late. When saying the focus word, its common to stress this word more than the other content words. This may include raising the voice  or speaking the word louder to add emphasis. Step 2: Change Focus Words to Move the Conversation Along Focus words may change as you move through a conversation. Its common to choose focus words that provide the next topic for discussion. Take a look at this short conversation, notice how the focus word (marked in  bold)  changes to move the conversation forward. Bob: Were flying to Las Vegas next week.Alice: Why are you going there?Bob: Im going to win a fortune!Alice: You need to get real. Nobody wins a fortune in Las Vegas.Bob: Thats not true. Jack won a fortune there last year.Alice: No, Jack got married. He didnt win a fortune.Bob: Thats what I call winning a fortune. I dont need to gamble to win a fortune.Alice: Looking for love in Las Vegas is definitely not the answer.Bob: OK. What is the answer in your opinion?Alice: I think you need to start dating girls from here.Bob: Dont get me started on girls from here. Theyre all out of my league!Alice: Come on Bob, youre a nice guy. You will find someone.Bob: I hope so... Stressing these key words helps change the topic from a vacation in Las Vegas  to finding someone to marry to solving Bobs love life issues.   Practice: Choose the Focus Word Now its up to you to choose the focus word. Choose the focus word for each sentence or group of short sentences. Next, practice speaking these sentences while making sure to emphasize the stress word more.   What do you want to do this afternoon? Im bored!Why didnt you tell me she had a birthday?Im hungry. Lets get some lunch.Nobodys here. Where has everyone gone?I think Tom should buy lunch. I bought lunch last week.Are you going to finish work or waste time?You always complain about work. I think you need to stop.Lets get Italian food. Im tired of Chinese food.The students are getting horrible grades. Whats wrong?Our class is going to have a test on Friday. Make sure you prepare. The focus word for most of these should be clear. However, remember that its possible to change the focus word in order to bring out different meanings. Another good way to practice is to use sound scripting - the marking up of your text - to help you practice dialogues.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Final Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Final - Personal Statement Example The employees got a chance to know each other better while they shared food in those short breaks. There are many theories of motivation that can be used to increase employee performance. Three theories of motivation that can help increase employee performance are Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, equity theory, and expectancy theory. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is based on a pyramid that ranks the five most important needs of workers. The five needs in order of important from least to most important are physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. By identifying the needs that drive each employee a manager can better find the things that motivate each of his employees. Equity theory was developed by John Stacey Adam in 1963. Equity theory states that, â€Å"when people feel fairly or advantageously treated they are more likely to be motivated; when they feel unfairly treated they are highly prone to feelings of disaffection and demotivation† (Yourcoach, 2010). Eliminating income discrepancies among workers with similar work experience and educat ional credentials is a great way to motivate workers since the staff will feel they are equally valued. Vroom’s expectancy theory is based on the assumption that motivation is associated with the belief of the employee in regards to effort and performance considerations. I was in the middle of an ethical dilemma a few years ago due to misbehavior by my supervisor. There was a promotion in the firm and several in-house candidates applied for the position including myself. A rumor surged that the son in law of one of the executives was going to get the job due to preferential treatment based on family connections. The supervisor denied the rumor, but at the end of the day he gave in to political pressures within the firm and gave the job to the son in law of the manager. I did not like the lack of ethics illustrated by this firm. When my contract expired I stopped working for that firm. In the

Sunday, February 2, 2020

In your opinion, would having different times for different ages to Essay

In your opinion, would having different times for different ages to Trick-or-Treat be a good idea, why or why not - Essay Example However, the fear, anxiety and to the extreme trauma caused by these images to the young children has raised recent discussions on the means of reducing their impact on these children. Arguments raised in objection of the treat-or-treat these images may be very disturbing to the children, as they exposes the children to all types of horrific characters. As a suggestion therefore, some people propose age and time restr4ictions to these events. The argument hold that the young should go on the door to door trick-or-treat visit early in the day, while the juveniles wait until later in the night to seek their treat. Personally, I do not think this will solve any problem due to a number of reasons, as expressed in this essay. The argument appears to disobey the very meaning of the event, â€Å"Halloween†. Additionally, the children, whether indoors or outdoors, cannot avoid the images of Halloween as they can see them anyway. Finally, It is not the treat associated with Halloween t hat is the biggest fun, and largely, some children do not need the treat anyway. In fact, most the teenagers who take part hope to miss the candy and the goodies, for them to do their trick. As such, it is the fun, the eerie feeling presented by the horrific images, and the fear that teenagers instil on other people with their dressing that is the greatest fun. What is the main reason for dressing in such attire if not to create fear and anxiety? Some of the costumes that children put on cost a fortune, one that the candy and the goodies cannot repay. Choosing to dress in the scariest and horrifying costumes, the children hope to have as much fun as they can. After all, this is an annual festival. Therefore, a policy that seeks to separate children and teenagers into different groups would spoil the much fun that Halloween offers. The children choose their most convenient time to go for the treat-or-trick event. When they feel ready to go, they alert their parents, who tag along and take care of them, especially by providing security. Therefore, Halloween is an optional event only the interested people take part in. They stay indoors, protecting their children from the trauma and the anxiety created by the images. By being not a mandatory festival, most of the parents who wish not to take part in the Halloween leave their goodies and candy at their gate or doorstep, where the Halloween children would find them and leave without any tricks or showing their Halloween costumes. Those who feel that the event causes too much fear, anxiety, and trauma to their children should adopt this method of protecting their children, instead of spoiling the entire event. Further, such parents can, if their children want to take part in the event, decide to let them take part early in the day, and by evening let them in to avoid the images caused by Halloween. Children, whether indoors or outdoors cannot avoid the Halloween images completely. Being indoors, other children seeki ng for a treat have to visit their homes. Children, with their curiosity can peep through the windows to see the Halloween costumes that other children have put on. This way, they can see them, therefore creating the fear and anxiety in them. Outdoors, there are countless billboards and posters, as well as live advertisements of Halloween parties in

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Comparative Study Of The Electoral Systems Politics Essay

Comparative Study Of The Electoral Systems Politics Essay A democracy cannot exist without elections which represent the will of the people, and elections cannot function without an electoral system that sets fair and transparent rules that govern the structures of elections. The study of electoral systems is a field of research that aims at analyzing the different electoral systems used in the world and how they put democracy into practice by making the different voters of the country represented in the parliament. A voting system can simply be defined as the procedures by which we cast votes and elect our public officials,  [1]  or that part of the electoral law and regulations which determine how parties and candidates are elected to a body as representative.  [2]  However, the importance of the electoral system lies in its consequences on the political scene of the country especially when choosing one type of electoral system over another, because electoral systems are, according to Sartori, the most speci ¬Ã‚ c manipulative instrument of politics.  [3]   In general there are twelve electoral systems that fall under three categories: majority, proportional representation and mixed systems. First, the voting systems that fall under the majority system are: first past the post, block vote, party block vote, alternative vote, and the two round systems. Second, under the proportional representation lie two systems: list proportional representation (List PR) and single transferable vote (STV). Third, the mixed system includes two systems: mixed member proportional and parallel systems. Finally, three other voting systems cannot be classified into one of the three systems mentioned above, there are: single non-transferable vote (SNTV), limited vote and borda count.  [4]  The main concern [of electoral systems] is [the] balance between decisiveness of government and representation of various minority views.  [5]  And sometimes, if not always, governments have to choose either one of these because of the difficulty of encompassing bot h those strong government and full representation in one type of electoral system. Regarding my thesis the two electoral systems that are important for my study are: list PR which is used in both Morocco and Algeria and SNTV which is used in Jordan. According to Samuel Huntington, the world has experienced three waves of democracy, the first one on the eve of the twentieth century until 1926; the second one emerged with the end of World War II until 1962 and the third one started in 1974.  [6]  The region of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) seems to be one of the few areas of the world where democratic waves did not arrive, or to be more accurate did not flourish, as there are few countries who are ranked by the Democracy Index of the Economist as either hybrid systems and many as authoritarian regimes. In the MENA region, few countries hold free and fair elections, among them are Morocco where proportional representation is used to elect the members of the parliament, Jordan, where the Single Non-Transferable Vote (SNTV) system is used and Algeria where proportional representation is used in parliamentary elections. However, in all these three countries the elections were characterized by low turnouts, invalid votes and boycott in addition to producing fragmented governments. The choice of those three MENA countries has to do with their similarities in terms of geography, culture, religion, language and their relative free and fair elections, according to international observers. On top of that, Having two kingdoms and one republic makes my comparison more interesting with Morocco at the focal point sharing similarity with Jordan in terms of the regime type and with Algeria in terms of the voting system. The objective of my thesis is to test two hypotheses: a) electoral systems in the MENA region are manipulated to produce fragmented governments and b) the geographical concentration of the vote for pro-regime parties in rural areas in contrast to the opposition base in urban areas. My thesis will compare the components of the electoral systems of the three countries and come up with patterns regarding the political party structure, the electoral reforms requested by the political parties and the elections results. Literature Review According to Andreas Schedler in his article The Nested Game of Democratization by Elections, electoral law can be used to prevent an eventual loss of votes from translating into a loss of power.  [7]  The major aim of the manipulation of the electoral system is the containment of its uncertain outcomes, therefore fair and free elections are allowed as long as the results can be predicted or controlled. In his book Rethinking Arab democratization: Elections without Democracy, Larbi Sadiki invented the terms electoral fetishism  [8]  and routinization  [9]  to describe the elections in the Middle East because their outcomes do not translate into major changes in society. However, even the manipulation of the voting system is not enough to guarantee an unsurprising outcome from the ballots as exemplified by the elections of 1991 in Algeria and 1989 in Jordan. The two cases of Algeria and Jordan show the autonomy of institutions exemplified by the electoral system that produ ces results that can either empower or weaken the candidates. So if the election results cannot be controlled they can at least be maneuvered to prevent a landslide victory of the opposition. Refraining from cancelling the result of elections is explained by the need of the regimes to obtain foreign aid and avoid international criticism. According to the author electoralism, being the creation of regimes, has become another state resource that the ruling elites use for legitimation purposes within and without.  [10]  The term electoralism refers here only to one of the three requirement of democracy; therefore having election is not enough for democracy to emerge. Therefore, the election`s main goal is to legitimate the regime and provide a way for the opposition to participate in the political life of the country but of course after guaranteeing its fragmentation. Moreover, According to Lise storm, a democracy is based on three core elements: holding free and fair elections, re specting civil liberties and strengthening the power of the elected government to govern. The aim of my study deals with the first core of the democratic principles, the free and fair elections which are instituted by the electoral law. Lise Storm stated that a country that provides for one of the three principles can still be deemed to be a democratic country, however if none of the principles is available then the country is authoritarian. Concerning the literature on the comparison of electoral systems in MENA, Ellen Lust-Okar and Amaney Ahmad Jamal analyzed the electoral systems in MENA, in their article Rulers and Rules: Reassessing the Influence of Regime Type on Electoral Law Formation. by differentiating between monarchies that prefer PR system in order to balance the strength of parties and republics that opted for plurality system in order to prevent the opposition from being elected. I will add the regime typology and election mode to make a pattern on the MENA that monarchies prefer proportional system while republics passed laws to enable the pro-regime parties to win a landslide victory. The article`s findings do not explain the use of PR in Morocco with more laws being passed to raise the threshold that will hinder small parties or the Jordanian change from a proportional system of plurality (bloc vote) to SNTV, which means one man one vote, which is supposed to reduce gerrymandering but did not. Many authors used the new institutionalism framework to analyze electoral systems. The theory is advanced by J. G. March and J. P. Olsen in their article The New Institutionalism: Organized Factors in Political Life. The theory is used in the field social science such as sociology and political science to account for the crucial rules of institutions in influencing the behavior of individuals based on norms, prohibitions or simply because an alternative does not exist. The basic aim of the theory is to prove that the organization of political life makes a difference,  [11]  which entails that those institutions are endogenous entities that benefit from an autonomy to exert its influence on individuals either by empowering them or confining their power. The institutions can be reinforced by third parties to exert actions that protect their interest without being in power. Andreas Shedler applied the theory of new institutionalism on the authoritarian regimes so that instead of ruling with coercive and undemocratic means; authoritarian rulers can use institutions to survive. The new institutionalism can be observed in four major ways: imperatives, landscape, containment, ambivalence. Regarding my study I will focus on the containment area regarding the electoral system and political parties. According to Shedler the electoral system can be manipulated by disempowerment or excluding sensitive areas from the hands of the elected officials; supply restriction which limits the choice available to the voter by banning, subverting or fragmenting certain parties; demand restriction by restricting the opposition access to the media; suffrage restriction by controlling the voting age ; preference distortion through the use of both violence such as intimidation and money such as vote buying; and vote distortion and rigging under the supervision of biased institu tions.  [12]  Regarding the legislative the manipulation includes disempowerment, agent control by directly appointing members of legislature and fragmentation.  [13]   My study will include the categorization made by the author and apply them to the three countries. The theory of new institutionalism will be useful to analyzing the electoral system in all the three countries and how the system influences the behavior of both the voters and candidates. The electoral system and constitution are institutions that have an immense influence on individuals. Who decides the winner from the loser in elections is not the regime nor the elections but rather the electoral system which has autonomy but it still can be manipulated. In the case of Morocco, George Joffe, in his article Moroccos Reform Process: Wider Implications, argued that the aims of the political reforms introduced by the regime were not due to external pressure or the triumph of the opposition to insert them, but rather to ensure the survival of the dynastic rule of the ruling family. As a result, the multiparty political system was adopted since the first constitution of 1962 to induce the political fragmentation in the country culminating in the hegemony of the palace over the political process of the country. Another interesting view of the Moroccan electoral system is by Andrew Barwig who argued, in his article How Electoral Rules Matter: Voter Turnout in Moroccos 2007 Parliamentary Elections, that the lower voter turnout in the election of 2007 was not only due to sociological factors but also to the electoral system as it produced an artificial and highly fragmented political landscape regardless of who wins the largest share of the na tional vote.  [14]  He pointed also to the aim of a multiparty system for the regime to divide and rule by preventing the emergence of a strong opposition, in addition to the role of the Ministry of Interior in controlling the electoral process since 1958 instead of assigning it to an independent commission. Third, John Grumm, the author of the article Theories of Electoral Systems, stated that the electoral system used in Morocco prevents a landslide victory of any party. The author indentified that the combination of largest remainder formula and gerrymandering induced a fragmented government and a situation whereby parties ended up with fewer seats compared to their amassed votes especially the major parties, In the case of Jordan, Glenn E. Robinson stated, in his article Can Islamists Be Democrats? The Case of Jordan, that the fear of the opposition, mainly the Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan, had motivated the king to have an electoral system that favors tribal affiliation rather than partisan one. Moreover, the same scholar in another article Defensive Democratization in Jordan, affirmed that the new electoral system adopted in 1993 benefited the tribal areas, mainly Eastern and Southern Jordan at the expense of urban areas, mainly the region of Amman-Zarqa which is Palestinian-dominanted. The authors conclusion is that electoral systems can be managed and controlled to prevent undesirable outcomes. In the case of Algeria, Ayln Guney and Aslihan Celenk, in their article The European Unions Democracy Promotion Policies in Algeria: Success or Failure?, stated that the Algerian regime passed a new electoral system before the election of 1991 by increasing the number of seats and districts in rural areas. The basic aim of the changes was to allow the pro-regime party, FLN, to win the elections but ironically the electoral system benefited the Islamist party of FIS instead. Mohand Salah Tahi, in his article Algerias legislative and local elections: Democracy denied (1997), indentified the Algerian military as the institution in control of the political life exemplified by the creation of parties such as RND and introducing changes to the constitution and electoral system that would not challenge its authority. For instance, to pass an amendment to the constitution the opposition needs the vote of three quarters of the upper house, in which one third directly appointed by the preside nt. These laws exemplify the fear of the regime from creating the same outcome of 1991, therefore passing some amendments both to the electoral system and the constitution allowed the regime to be in a position to control and manage the outcomes of elections without the need to annul them. What emerges from the literature review concerns the criteria that define the fairness and freedom of election, having international observers and abiding by the electoral law make is it apparent that the elections are transparent but what if the issues that undermine the fairness of the elections relate to the electoral system itself. The literature reviewed above shows that Jordan and Algeria introduced two electoral systems in the early 1990s believing that they would be suitable for making the pro- regime party the obvious winner in the case of Algeria and tribal candidates in the case of Jordan. However, the outcome of the elections persuaded the two countries to adopt different electoral system: PR in Algeria and SNTV in Jordan. Regarding the case of Morocco the shift from Plurality into PR in 1997 did not produce surprising results therefore the electoral system was kept. So the question here is why did three countries diverge in terms of the electoral system used, especially regarding Jordan and Morocco? There is huge body of literature written about electoral systems arguing about the list PR as the most propositional system in terms of allowing smaller parties to be represented in the parliament, the high turnout due to the absence of the wasted vote phenomena in contrast to the plurality system, more representation for women and a higher proportionality between seats and votes. However, from the elections results in both Morocco and Algeria the PR did not produce the same results expected of the system exemplified by the low turnout, high invalid votes, a high threshold that prevents small parties from gaining seats in the parliament while the negative outcome of PR which is a fragmented government seems to be present in both cases. In the case of Jordan, the resentment of the SNTV system pushed many parties to ask for a reform debate with Islamic Front Action (IFA), an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood, asking for PR system and other parties asking for a mixed system. My thesis will analyse the abnormalities of the three systems that generated much discussion about the ineffectiveness of the voting system and the need to reform it. According to Andrew Reynolds , Ben Reilly and Andrew Ellis, the electoral system is the easiest political institution to be manipulated and the choice of the electoral system determines the winners. However, the usual distinction between Plurality and Proportional systems as the former encourages two party systems while the other induces multi-parties is not always accurate as many examples contradict these findings such as Spain, Namibia, South Africa and India.  [15]  This has to do with many variables besides the electoral system used such as the socio-political context of the country. Therefore, The electoral system cannot be seen in isolation of other political institutions such as the constitution, the political parties among other socio political variables, thus a PR system can have two different outcomes in two countries .The case of the three countries of Algeria, Morocco and Jordan have quasi-similar political context so the outcome of particular voting system will have the same effect based on the elections results in 2003 and 2007. Theoretical Framework According to   Gallagher and Mitchell: Government is representative government, in which the people do not govern themselves directly but rather delegate the task of political decision-making to a smaller set of public officials. In democratic societies these representatives are elected.  [16]  In order to understand how governments are elected, we need to understand the system that allows them to be elected which is the voting system: The set of procedures that determine how people are elected to office. These procedures include how the ballot is structured, how people cast their votes, how those votes are counted, and how the winners are decided.  [17]  The electoral system does not only determine how people are elected to the office but also serves as a link between the voter`s preferences and the policies of the government; at least, theoretically speaking, the majority of the voters will have their opinion respected in terms of the parties and candidate they elected.  [18]   Based on these two quotations, the electoral systems are accurate examples to assess democracy, because electoral systems can tell more about the country. Reynolds, Reilly and Ellis divided the different aspects represented by electoral systems into four categories: geographic representation, which means that the different regions of the country are represented in the parliament; ideological representation, which implies that all the different political doctrines are represented in the parliament and at least the minor, ones, can compete in the elections; party-political situation which denotes that power is not in the hand of one party while excluding other parties from participating in the elections;  [19]  and descriptive representation, which entails that its different ethnic, linguistic, religious and gender components are represented; or, as Reynolds, Reilly and Ellis put it, serves as the mirror of the nation.  [20]  My thesis will include those four categories to anal yze electoral systems of the three countries based on the parliamentary elections held after 2000. On top of that, I will also use the theory of new institutionalism with the framework of Andreas Schedler which will be useful in identifying the reasons behind choosing a particular type of electoral system and targeting the areas that were manipulated. Aims of the Study My aim is to explain that it is possible to have free and fair elections but that does not mean that the country is democratic as the elections are based on the choice of the electoral system that produces fragmented government through the use of such policies as rising the threshold, gerrymandering and requiring difficult measures to pass an amendment to the electoral law. My thesis will analyze the electoral systems in MENA region by identifying three case studies: Morocco, Jordan and Algeria. My aim is to study the development of electoral systems in those three countries; the reason behind choosing those three countries has to do with their similarities. All of those countries are newly-formed democracies that gained their independence or emerged as a state in the second half of the twentieth century: Jordan in 1946, Morocco in 1956 and Algeria in 1962. All those three countries share geographic, linguistics and religious similarities. According to the findings of Freedom Houses Freedom in the World 2009 Survey, the only free country in the MENA is Israel, while only 6 countries are qualified as partly free: Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Lebanon and Yemen and the rest of the MENA is classified as not free. Another index that ranks countries in terms of their democracy is the Economist Index of Democracy which ranked Jordan, Morocco and Algeria a s authoritarian regimes. Based on these indexes, I chose two monarchies: Morocco and Jordan and adding one republic: Algeria. On top of that, while Morocco and Jordan share the same political regime, Morocco and Jordan share the same voting system. I want to prove that the lack of democracy in MENA is not due to cultural, religious or colonial history but rather to the manipulation of the electoral system to prevent a certain group from gaining majority, this manipulation is driven by the fear from the rise of the opposition such as the leftist and Islamist parties. My hypothesis is that the lack of democracy is not only due to the falsification of the election results but also by the manipulation of electoral systems. Therefore, even if the elections are organized in a free and fair environment with the presence of international observers, the electoral system used will prevent a group from attaining a majority. This hypothesis will back up my second hypothesis regarding the concentration of the pro-regime parties-vote in rural areas. The second aim of my thesis is to find the rationale behind the selection of a particular election mode by those three countries and the reasons behind its change, in addition to analyzing the di fferent amendments passed to the electoral system and reforms that are pressed for? Finally, my thesis will compare between the three countries to find if there are similarities in terms laws that fragment or exclude the opposition, the geographical concentration of the vote, the election results in terms of winners and losers, the turnout, the categorization of parties. The electoral system used in both Morocco and Algeria is PR (Proportional representation) while the SNTV is used in Jordan. The chart below identifies the different components of the electoral system of each country: Morocco Jordan Algeria Electoral System Plurality PR in 1997 Block Vote inherited from Britain SNTV in 1993 by a royal decree Absolute Majority Run-off in 1999 PR in 1997 Threshold 2% in 2002 6% in 2007 N/A 7% in 1997 5% in 2007 Quotas 10% women: 30 seats 6 seats for women, 9 for Christians, and 3 for the Circassian and Chechen minorities. Turnout (Latest Legislative Election) 2007 election 37% 2007 election 54% -80% in rural areas and 28% in some constituencies in the capital 2007 election 35% Invalid vote and blank vote 2007 election 19% 2007 election 15% Parliamentary System Bicameral: -The Chamber of Counselors: 270 seats. -The Chamber of Representatives: 325 seats. Bicameral: -The Assembly of Senators: 55 seats -The Chamber of Deputies: 80 seats Bicameral: -The Council of the nation: 144 members, 96 members elected by communal councils and 48 members appointed by the president. -The National Peoples Assembly: 380 seats. Political System Monarchy Monarchy Republic System of Counting the Votes Largest Remainder N/A Hare Formula Electoral Districts 2007: 95 2007: 45 districts -3 closed tribal electoral districts. 2010: 45 districts divided into 108 sub-districts 1997: 56 electoral districts : 48 and 8 for the Algerian Diaspora District magnitude Between 1 and 5 1 Ballot structure Nominal/categorical Nominal/categorical Reforms of the electoral law -2009: law number 9: from 110 to 120 Addition of sub-districts Constitution -1962 -1970 -1972 -1980: article 21, 43 and 95 -1992: increasing the seats of the parliament from 306 to 333 -1996: bicameral systems, 162 seats for the upper house indirectly elected, 81 by chambers of commerce and 27 by trade unions The 325 for the lower house directly elected. -1952 -1963: single party system -1976: socialism -1986: free market reforms -1989: multi party system -1996: banning parties formed under religious, regional or linguistic crtieria -12 November 2008: article 74 amendment and giving more rights to women Political parties categorization -Pro-palace: RNI, MP and UC -Conservative: PI -Leftist: USFP and PPS -Islamist: PJD -right: -Leftist: JCP -Islamist: IAF and MCP Pro-regime: FLN and NRD -Right: FNA -Leftist: PT and FFS -Islamist: MSP and MRI Voting Day Friday Tuesday Thursday Voting list closed N/A Closed Electoral reform asked for -Rising the threshold -changing the highest remainder formula -two systems: plurality in rural areas and PR in urban areas -PR -Mixed system: 2 votes one for the district and one for the bloc Number of independents -2002 -2007 -2003 -2007 -2010 -2002 -2010 Women representation in the lower house -34/10.5% (2007) -13/ 10.8% (2010) -30/ 7.7% (2007) By-elections The DesignMethods and Procedures   -Analyze the recent legislative election results of Morocco, Jordan and Algeria in 2002 and 2007. -Identify electoral systems as the independent variable while the outcomes are the dependent variables in addition to using correlation analysis to see if there is a relationship between those two variables. This will be helpful in testing the theory that PR systems produce fragmented governments and plurality systems produce strong governments. -Since my data is mostly qualitative, I will use nominal level of measurement. -do a simulation of the three recent elections using different electoral systems -count the wasted vote Hypotheses Voting systems are manipulated to produce fragmented government Votes supporting pro-regime parties are geographically concentrated in rural areas in contrast to the opposition which is based in urban areas Research Questions What are the differences and similarities between the electoral systems of Morocco, Jordan and Algeria? How representative are electoral systems in MENA? Is there a relationship between government type and electoral system? Is there a relationship between the electoral system and the turnout? Is there a relationship between the electoral system and the number of parties? Can we make some conclusions based on the case studies and apply them to all Arab countries? What is the electoral system that best suits the region of MENA? How is the dilemma of Strong and Well-represented government dealt with? Why is the lower turnout and invalid vote prominent in urban areas in contrast with rural areas? Partition of Thesis My thesis will be divided into five chapters; the first one will be about an introduction about the electoral systems and their importance in sustaining democracy. The second chapter will be devoted to the electoral systems in Morocco and the analysis of its recent legislative election in 2007. The third chapter will include the analysis of Jordans electoral system and its recent legislative election in 2007 and 2010. The fourth chapter is devoted to the electoral system in Algeria and its recent 2007 legislative election. The fifth chapter will serve to connect the three case studies by comparing their similarities and differences and making some concluding statements on the relationship between the type of electoral system, government type and democracy. Data Collection Primary Data Sources: The constitution, electoral law and the amendments passed in the three countries. The Moroccan and Algerian 2007 legislative election results and the Jordanian 2007 and 2010 legislative election results Geographical maps of the elections results Secondary Data Sources Interviews with some political parties in Morocco -analysis of interviews conducted with politi