Monday, December 23, 2019
Question 1 5 of 5 points An alternative to combining tables by a subquery is to use a join. Selected Answer: True Question 2 5 of 5 points Regarding the interchangeability of subqueries and joins, Selected Answer: a join can sometimes be used as an alternative to a subquery, and a subquery can sometimes be used as an alternative to a join. Question 3 5 of 5 points When making an SQL query, we are using SQL as a(n) ________. Selected Answer: DML Question 4 0 of 5 points Every subquery can be alternatively expressed by a join. Selected Answer: False Question 5 5 of 5 points The clause SELECT COUNT (*) results in a table with aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Question 2 5 of 5 points The SQL keyword UNIQUE is used to define alternative keys. Selected Answer: True Question 3 0 of 5 points If a trigger is being written to enforce referential integrity actions, you cannot use an INSTEAD OF trigger. Selected Answer: False Question 4 5 of 5 points If the values in an SQL view are changeable through the view itself, which SQL statement is used to change the values? Selected Answer: UPDATE Question 5 5 of 5 points In representing a 1:N relationship in a relational database design, the key of the table representing the entity on the many side is placed as a foreign key in the table representing the entity on the one side of the relationship. Selected Answer: False Question 6 0 of 5 points When transforming supertype/subtype entities into a relational database design, an entity is created for the supertype only. Selected Answer: True Question 7 5 of 5 points Cascading deletions are generally not used with relationships between strong entities. Selected Answer: True Question 8 5 of 5 points An ID-dependent table can be used to represent multivalued attributes. Selected Answer: True Question 9 5 of 5 points The key of an intersection table is always the combination of the keys of both parents. SelectedShow MoreRelatedDatabase And Database Management System Essay1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesZalgaonkir Pearson Cape Town Campus Introduction to Databases project Student Number: MB2014-0413 Teacher: Andrew Davies Due Date: 23/09/2016 2 Contents Page Page 1Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Cover Page Page 2Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Contents Page Page 3-5Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Question 1 Page 6-12Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Optional Access Screenshots Page 13-18Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Question 2 Page 19Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦References and Bibliography 3 Question 1 1.1) Database Database is defined as a set of related data in many tables andRead MoreRelational Database : A Database1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Relational Database Introduction Ã¢â¬â What is a relational database It is a database which shows the links and relationships between two sets of data/stored information in a document or mainly entities. This means e.g. if a computer system has to store a lot of data/information about people instead of repeating the same row of information which may include personal or unnecessary things, you will then be able to click on the main primary key data which then leads to the actual personal things. ThisRead MoreDatabase Security And Concerns Of A Compromised Database894 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDatabase Security and Concerns In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, there is a growing amount of complexity when it comes to databases. With that growing complexity, an increasing amount of security concerns arise, such as: unauthorized access and SQL injection. SQL injection is used to attack data-driven applications. SQL injections can manipulate or destroy databases depending on its purpose. Due to the security breaches, measures are constantly put in place in order to prevent anymore from happening. 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Installing databaseRead MoreDatabase Management System : History Database System1408 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM History of database system: Brief history of database management is as follows, 1950s: Database management system started its journey in late 1950s with the invent of magnetic tapes. All the data was stored in tapes. Processing of data requires reading data from one or more tapes and writing to a new tape after processing. 1960s Ã¢â¬â 1970s: Database management system could enhance its features with invent of harddisk. Unlike files, hard disk supports random accessRead MoreTechnical Guide : Database And Database Essay1551 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTechnical guide Database It is the collection of schemas, tables, queries, reports, views, and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies. It is a structured set of data held in a computer, especially one that is accessible in various ways. A database is a collection of information that is organized soRead MoreRelational Databases4819 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesCHAPTER 4 RELATIONAL DATABASES SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 4.1 Contrast the logical and the physical view of data and discuss why separate views are necessary in database applications. Describe which perspective is most useful for each of the following employees: a programmer, a manager, and an internal auditor. How will understanding logical data structures assist you when designing and using database systems?lt;/paragt;lt;/questiongt;lt;questionRead MoreRelational Database : Assignment : Database1882 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesRelational Database Ã¢â¬â Assignment Introduction Ã¢â¬â What is a relational database It is a database which shows the links and relationships between two sets of data/stored information in a document or mainly entities. This means e.g. if a computer system has to store a lot of data/information about people instead of repeating the same row of information which may include personal or unnecessary things, you will then be able to click on the main primary key data which then leads to the actual personal
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Jon Jon was breaking his fast on applecakes and blood sausage when Samwell Tarly plopped himself down on the bench. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been summoned to the sept,Ã¢â¬ Sam said in an excited whisper. Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re passing me out of training. We will write a custom essay sample on A Game of Thrones Chapter Forty-eight or any similar topic only for you Order Now IÃ¢â¬â¢m to be made a brother with the rest of you. Can you believe it?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, truly?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Truly. IÃ¢â¬â¢m to assist Maester Aemon with the library and the birds. He needs someone who can read and write letters.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll do well at that,Ã¢â¬ Jon said, smiling. Sam glanced about anxiously. Ã¢â¬Å"Is it time to go? I shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be late, they might change their minds.Ã¢â¬ He was fairly bouncing as they crossed the weed-strewn courtyard. The day was warm and sunny. Rivulets of water trickled down the sides of the Wall, so the ice seemed to sparkle and shine. Inside the sept, the great crystal caught the morning light as it streamed through the south-facing window and spread it in a rainbow on the altar. PypÃ¢â¬â¢s mouth dropped open when he caught sight of Sam, and Toad poked Grenn in the ribs, but no one dared say a word. Septon Celladar was swinging a censer, filling the air with fragrant incense that reminded Jon of Lady StarkÃ¢â¬â¢s little sept in Winterfell. For once the septon seemed sober. The high officers arrived in a body; Maester Aemon leaning on Clydas, Ser Alliser cold-eyed and grim, Lord Commander Mormont resplendent in a black wool doublet with silvered bearclaw fastenings. Behind them came the senior members of the three orders: red-faced Bowen Marsh the Lord Steward, First Builder Othell Yarwyck, and Ser Jaremy Rykker, who commanded the rangers in the absence of Benjen Stark. Mormont stood before the altar, the rainbow shining on his broad bald head. Ã¢â¬Å"You came to us outlaws,Ã¢â¬ he began, Ã¢â¬Å"poachers, rapers, debtors, killers, and thieves. You came to us children. You came to us alone, in chains, with neither friends nor honor. You came to us rich, and you came to us poor. Some of you bear the names of proud houses. Others have only bastardsÃ¢â¬â¢ names, or no names at all. It makes no matter. All that is past now. On the Wall, we are all one house. Ã¢â¬Å"At evenfall, as the sun sets and we face the gathering night, you shall take your vows. From that moment, you will be a Sworn Brother of the NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Watch. Your crimes will be washed away, your debts forgiven. So too you must wash away your former loyalties, put aside your grudges, forget old wrongs and old loves alike. Here you begin anew. Ã¢â¬Å"A man of the NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Watch lives his life for the realm. Not for a king, nor a lord, nor the honor of this house or that house, neither for gold nor glory nor a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s love, but for the realm, and all the people in it. A man of the NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Watch takes no wife and fathers no sons. Our wife is duty. Our mistress is honor. And you are the only sons we shall ever know. Ã¢â¬Å"You have learned the words of the vow. Think carefully before you say them, for once you have taken the black, there is no turning back. The penalty for desertion is death.Ã¢â¬ The Old Bear paused for a moment before he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Are there any among you who wish to leave our company? If so, go now, and no one shall think the less of you.Ã¢â¬ No one moved. Ã¢â¬Å"Well and good,Ã¢â¬ said Mormont. Ã¢â¬Å"You may take your vows here at evenfall, before Septon Celladar and the first of your order. Do any of you keep to the old gods?Ã¢â¬ Jon stood. Ã¢â¬Å"I do, my lord.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I expect you will want to say your words before a heart tree, as your uncle did,Ã¢â¬ Mormont said. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, my lord,Ã¢â¬ Jon said. The gods of the sept had nothing to do with him; the blood of the First Men flowed in the veins of the Starks. He heard Grenn whispering behind him. Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no godswood here. Is there? I never saw a godswood.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see a herd of aurochs until they trampled you into the snow,Ã¢â¬ Pyp whispered back. Ã¢â¬Å"I would so,Ã¢â¬ Grenn insisted. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢d see them a long way off.Ã¢â¬ Mormont himself confirmed GrennÃ¢â¬â¢s doubts. Ã¢â¬Å"Castle Black has no need of a godswood. Beyond the Wall the haunted forest stands as it stood in the Dawn Age, long before the Andals brought the Seven across the narrow sea. You will find a grove of weirwoods half a league from this spot, and mayhap your gods as well.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"My lord.Ã¢â¬ The voice made Jon glance back in surprise. Samwell Tarly was on his feet. The fat boy wiped his sweaty palms against his tunic. Ã¢â¬Å"Might I . . . might I go as well? To say my words at this heart tree?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Does House Tarly keep the old gods too?Ã¢â¬ Mormont asked. Ã¢â¬Å"No, my lord,Ã¢â¬ Sam replied in a thin, nervous voice. The high officers frightened him, Jon knew, the Old Bear most of all. Ã¢â¬Å"I was named in the light of the Seven at the sept on Horn Hill, as my father was, and his father, and all the Tarlys for a thousand years.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why would you forsake the gods of your father and your House?Ã¢â¬ wondered Ser Jaremy Rykker. Ã¢â¬Å"The NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Watch is my House now,Ã¢â¬ Sam said. Ã¢â¬Å"The Seven have never answered my prayers. Perhaps the old gods will.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"As you wish, boy,Ã¢â¬ Mormont said. Sam took his seat again, as did Jon. Ã¢â¬Å"We have placed each of you in an order, as befits our need and your own strengths and skills.Ã¢â¬ Bowen Marsh stepped forward and handed him a paper. The Lord Commander unrolled it and began to read. Ã¢â¬Å"Haider, to the builders,Ã¢â¬ he began. Haider gave a stiff nod of approval. Ã¢â¬Å"Grenn, to the rangers. Albett, to the builders. Pypar, to the rangers.Ã¢â¬ Pyp looked over at Jon and wiggled his ears. Ã¢â¬Å"Samwell, to the stewards.Ã¢â¬ Sam sagged with relief, mopping at his brow with,a scrap of silk. Ã¢â¬Å"Matthar, to the rangers. Dareon, to the stewards. Todder, to the rangers. Jon, to the stewards.Ã¢â¬ The stewards? For a moment Jon could not believe what he had heard. Mormont must have read it wrong. He started to rise, to open his mouth, to tell them there had been a mistake . . . and then he saw Ser Alliser studying him, eyes shiny as two flakes of obsidian, and he knew. The Old Bear rolled up the paper. Ã¢â¬Å"Your firsts will instruct you in your duties. May all the gods preserve you, brothers.Ã¢â¬ The Lord Commander favored them with a half bow, and took his leave. Ser Alliser went with him, a thin smile on his face. Jon had never seen the master-at-arms took quite so happy. Ã¢â¬Å"Rangers with me,Ã¢â¬ Ser Jaremy Rykker called when they were gone. Pyp was staring at Jon as he got slowly to his feet. His ears were red. Grenn, grinning broadly, did not seem to realize that anything was amiss. Matt and Toad fell in beside them, and they followed Ser Jaremy from the sept. Ã¢â¬Å"Builders,Ã¢â¬ announced lantern-jawed Othell Yarwyck. Haider and Albett trailed out after him. Jon looked around him in sick disbelief. Maester AemonÃ¢â¬â¢s blind eyes were raised toward the light he could not see. The septon was arranging crystals on the altar. Only Sam and Darcon remained on the benches; a fat boy, a singer . . . and him. Lord Steward Bowen Marsh rubbed his plump hands together. Ã¢â¬Å"Samwell, you will assist Maester Aemon in the rookery and library. Chett is going to the kennels, to help with the hounds. You shall have his cell, so as to be close to the maester night and day. I trust you will take good care of him. He is very old and very precious to us. Ã¢â¬Å"Dareon, I am told that you sang at many a high lordÃ¢â¬â¢s table and shared their meat and mead. We are sending you to Eastwatch. It may be your palate will be some help to Cotter Pyke when merchant galleys come trading. We are paying too dear for salt beef and pickled fish, and the quality of the olive oil weÃ¢â¬â¢re getting has been frightful, Present yourself to Borcas when you arrive, he will keep you busy between ships.Ã¢â¬ Marsh turned his smile on Jon. Ã¢â¬Å"Lord Commander Mormont has requested you for his personal steward, Jon. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll sleep in a cell beneath his chambers, in the Lord CommanderÃ¢â¬â¢s tower.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And what will my duties be?Ã¢â¬ Jon asked sharply. Ã¢â¬Å"Will I serve the Lord CommanderÃ¢â¬â¢s meals, help him fasten his clothes, fetch hot water for his bath?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Certainly.Ã¢â¬ Marsh frowned at JonÃ¢â¬â¢s tone. Ã¢â¬Å"And you will run his messages, keep a fire burning in his chambers, change his sheets and blankets daily, and do all else that the Lord Commander might require of you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do you take me for a servant?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ Maester Aemon said, from the back of the sept. Clydas helped him stand. Ã¢â¬Å"We took you for a man of the NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Watch . . . but perhaps we were wrong in that.Ã¢â¬ It was all Jon could do to stop himself from walking out. Was he supposed to churn butter and sew doublets like a girl for the rest of his days? Ã¢â¬Å"May I go?Ã¢â¬ he asked stiffly. Ã¢â¬Å"As you wish,Ã¢â¬ Bowen Marsh responded. Dareon and Sam left with him. They descended to the yard in silence. Outside, Jon looked up at the Wall shining in the sun, the melting ice creeping down its side in a hundred thin fingers. JonÃ¢â¬â¢s rage was such that he would have smashed it all in an instant, and the world be damned. Ã¢â¬Å"Jon,Ã¢â¬ Samwell Tarly said excitedly. Ã¢â¬Å"Wait. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t you see what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re doing?Ã¢â¬ Jon turned on him in a fury. Ã¢â¬Å"I see Ser AlliserÃ¢â¬â¢s bloody hand, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all I see. He wanted to shame me, and he has.Ã¢â¬ Dareon gave him a look. Ã¢â¬Å"The stewards are fine for the likes of you and me, Sam, but not for Lord Snow.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m a better swordsman and a better rider than any of you,Ã¢â¬ Jon blazed back. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not fair!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Fair?Ã¢â¬ Dareon sneered. Ã¢â¬Å"The girl was waiting for me, naked as the day she was born. She pulled me through the window, and you talk to me of fair?Ã¢â¬ He walked off. Ã¢â¬Å"There is no shame in being a steward,Ã¢â¬ Sam said. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you think I want to spend the rest of my life washing an old manÃ¢â¬â¢s smallclothes?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The old man is Lord Commander of the NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Watch,Ã¢â¬ Sam reminded him. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be with him day and night. Yes, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll pour his wine and see that his bed linen is fresh, but youÃ¢â¬â¢ll also take his letters, attend him at meetings, squire for him in battle. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be as close to him as his shadow. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll know everything, be a part of everything . . . and the Lord Steward said Mormont asked for you himself! Ã¢â¬Å"When I was little, my father used to insist that I attend him in the audience chamber whenever he held court. When he rode to Highgarden to bend his knee to Lord Tyrell, he made me come. Later, though, he started to take Dickon and leave me at home, and he no longer cared whether I sat through his audiences, so long as Dickon was there. He wanted his heir at his side, donÃ¢â¬â¢t you see? To watch and listen and learn from all he did. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll wager thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why Lord Mormont requested you, Jon. What else could it be? He wants to groom you for command!Ã¢â¬ Jon was taken aback. It was true, Lord Eddard had often made Robb part of his councils back at Winterfell. Could Sam be right? Even a bastard could rise high in the NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Watch, they said. Ã¢â¬Å"I never asked for this,Ã¢â¬ he said stubbornly. Ã¢â¬Å"None of us are here for asking,Ã¢â¬ Sam reminded him. And suddenly Jon Snow was ashamed. Craven or not, Samwell Tarly had found the courage to accept his fate like a man. On the Wall, a man gets only what he earns, Benjen Stark had said the last night Jon had seen him alive. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re no ranger, Jon, only a green boy with the smell of summer still on you. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d heard it said that bastards grow up faster than other children; on the Wall, you grew up or you died. Jon let out a deep sigh. Ã¢â¬Å"You have the right of it. I was acting the boy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then youÃ¢â¬â¢ll stay and say your words with me?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The old gods will be expecting us.Ã¢â¬ He made himself smile. They set out late that afternoon. The Wall had no gates as such, neither here at Castle Black nor anywhere along its three hundred miles. They led their horses down a narrow tunnel cut through the ice, cold dark walls pressing in around them as the passage twisted and turned. Three times their way was blocked by iron bars, and they had to stop while Bowen Marsh drew out his keys and unlocked the massive chains that secured them. Jon could sense the vast weight pressing down on him as he waited behind the Lord Steward. The air was colder than a tomb, and more still. He felt a strange relief when they reemerged into the afternoon light on the north side of the Wall. Sam blinked at the sudden glare and looked around apprehensively. Ã¢â¬Å"The wildlings . . . they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t . . . theyÃ¢â¬â¢d never dare come this close to the Wall. Would they?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They never have.Ã¢â¬ Jon climbed into his saddle. When Bowen Marsh and their ranger escort had mounted, Jon put two fingers in his mouth and whistled. Ghost came loping out of the tunnel. The Lord StewardÃ¢â¬â¢s garron whickered and backed away from the direwolf. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you mean to take that beast?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, my lord,Ã¢â¬ Jon said. GhostÃ¢â¬â¢s head lifted. He seemed to taste the air. In the blink of an eye he was off, racing across the broad, weed-choked field to vanish in the trees. Once they had entered the forest, they were in a different world. Jon had often hunted with his father and Jory and his brother Robb. He knew the wolfswood around Winterfell as well as any man. The haunted forest was much the same, and yet the feel of it was very different. Perhaps it was all in the knowing. They had ridden past the end of the world; somehow that changed everything. Every shadow seemed darker, every sound more ominous. The trees pressed close and shut out the light of the setting sun. A thin crust of snow cracked beneath the hooves of their horses, with a sound like breaking bones. When the wind set the leaves to rustling, it was like a chilly finger tracing a path up JonÃ¢â¬â¢s spine. The Wall was at their backs, and only the gods knew what lay ahead. The sun was sinking below the trees when they reached their destination, a small clearing in the deep of the wood where nine weirwoods grew in a rough circle. Jon drew in a breath, and he saw Sam Tarly staring. Even in the wolfswood, you never found more than two or three of the white trees growing together; a grove of nine was unheard of. The forest floor was carpeted with fallen leaves, bloodred on top, black rot beneath. The wide smooth trunks were bone pale, and nine faces stared inward. The dried sap that crusted in the eyes was red and hard as ruby. Bowen Marsh commanded them to leave their horses outside the circle. Ã¢â¬Å"This is a sacred place, we will not defile it.Ã¢â¬ When they entered the grove, Samwell Tarly turned slowly looking at each face in turn. No two were quite alike. Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re watching us,Ã¢â¬ he whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"The old gods.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ Jon knelt, and Sam knelt beside him. They said the words together, as the last light faded in the west and grey day became black night. Ã¢â¬Å"Hear my words, and bear witness to my vow,Ã¢â¬ they recited, their voices filling the twilit grove. Ã¢â¬Å"Night gathers, and now my watch begins. It shall not end until my death. I shall take no wife, hold no lands, father no children. I shall wear no crowns and win no glory. I shall live and die at my post. I am the sword in the darkness. I am the watcher on the walls. I am the fire that burns against the cold, the light that brings the dawn, the horn that wakes the sleepers, the shield that guards the realms of men. I pledge my life and honor to the NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Watch, for this night and all the nights to come.Ã¢â¬ The woods fell silent. Ã¢â¬Å"You knelt as boys,Ã¢â¬ Bowen Marsh intoned solemnly. Ã¢â¬Å"Rise now as men of the NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Watch.Ã¢â¬ Jon held out a hand to pull Sam back to his feet. The rangers gathered round to offer smiles and congratulations, all but the gnarled old forester Dywen. Ã¢â¬Å"Best we be starting back, mÃ¢â¬â¢lord,Ã¢â¬ he said to Bowen Marsh. Ã¢â¬Å"DarkÃ¢â¬â¢s falling, and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s something in the smell oÃ¢â¬â¢ the night that I mislike.Ã¢â¬ And suddenly Ghost was back, stalking softly between two weirwoods. White fur and red eyes, Jon realized, disquieted. Like the trees . . . The wolf had something in his jaws. Something black. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s he got there?Ã¢â¬ asked Bowen Marsh, frowning. Ã¢â¬Å"To me, Ghost.Ã¢â¬ Jon knelt. Ã¢â¬Å"Bring it here.Ã¢â¬ The direwolf trotted to him. Jon heard Samwell TarlyÃ¢â¬â¢s sharp intake of breath. Ã¢â¬Å"Gods be good,Ã¢â¬ Dywen muttered. Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a hand.Ã¢â¬ How to cite A Game of Thrones Chapter Forty-eight, Essay examples
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Describe about the Audience and structure of the project management plan and Contents of project management plan of Bendigo? Answer: Executive summary Bendigo in a big community in Victoria , Australia . It constitutes an important part of the socio-economic part of the country. So, government is interested in the improvement of the community. An important requirement of the community is a good and up dated education system. There are only one primary, four secondary and one senior secondary schools in the area. The students of the community is dependent on these schools. Now the schools are in trouble to meet the expectation of the parents, there is problems related to retention and attendance of the students. The contemporary classroom based educational system is no more effective with the dynamic requirements in the changing world, so the education department of the government has undertaken an education plan that will reshape the education system based on the requirements of the students. It will be more related to personalized student education. The project plan of the Bendigo Education Plan has been released, but it needs some critical analysis to validate it against the project management plan framework used in project management. The analysis will be backed up from the theories of project management. Finally the critical analysis of the project management plan needs some recommendation based on the outcomes of the analysis. The analysis has found several shortcoming and lack of information in the project plan when comparing the same to standard project management plan. Introduction The aim of this report is to analyze the project plan for Bendigo Education Plan from different critical aspects. The project was supposed to deliver a better education plan to the students from Bendigo area. Being the second largest municipality of the Victoria area, Bendigo has a huge population. The youths from Bendigo needs to have better education, a future with dynamic learning networks and revolutionary learning processes. The Bendigo Education Plan was an attempt to blend technology with education and building a better educational framework for future generations. The plan has several recommendations and categories of those recommendations. (BEP, 2006) In this report, the project plan for Bendigo educational plan will be analyzed based on some proposed pmp framework. To proceed with this report, there will be several sections and subsections. After this introductory section there will be discussions on project background. The context of the project, along with the information about the project owner, project sponsor, activities of the organization, location of the organization, etc. Will be described. Then the audience structure for this project management plan, content of the project management plan covering the areas from project management plan framework. Finally there will be conclusion and recommendation for the project. All these aspects will be critically reviewed. All required details like the project plan for the Bendigo Education Plan etc. Will be added to the appendix part. The director of the Bendigo Education Plan projects is responsible for the communications and all required implementation of the Bendigo Education Plan plan by staying within the budget limit. There are communication strategies detailed project plans and budget for each of the individual projects under Bendigo Education Plan. (BEP, 2006) Project background The project, Bendigo Education Plan has been undertaken by government of Victoria , Australia . The government. Mr. Ian stevens is the chairperson of the steering committee and the working group of the project. Mr. Rob hallisey is the executive officer of the steering committee and the working group. There are one primary, four secondary and one senior secondary schools in bendigo. In many cases these schools have failed to meet the expectations of the communities also, it has various difficulties in catering the need of the huge number of students coming from bendogo and nearby areas. There are private schools in the area, but the education system in Bendigo is dependent on these government schools. The project, Bendigo Education Plan has been undertaken to bridge the gap between the current educational systems of the area to the requirements of the students from the community, their expectations from the schools, building a better teacher-student relationship, training teachers to provide better educational environment in the schools. Under Bendigo Education Plan, there are several individual projects. There are 39 recommendations for achieving the goals of the Bendigo Education Plan. These recommendations covers requirements of students, teachers, courses, community and govern ance. Many projects under Bendigo Education Plan are interrelated. From these projects the student attendance and retention are supposed to be improved. (BEP, 2006) Audience and structure of the project management plan For the project management plan for Bendigo Education Plan, there is a larger audience base. The audience base includes the community of bendigo, the students and teachers, the management committees of the government schools there and other persons who are stakeholders of Bendigo Education Plan. (BEP, 2006) There are four main categories of stakeholders in the Bendigo Education Plan project. They are the community members including the teachers, parents etc. And the students. Students are the main audience of the project. The project is basically developed for them, their future and current educational needs. The project management plan is also for the owner and sponsor of the project. Here the owner or sponsor is the government of Victoria , department of education. They need this plan to understand the scope, purpose and applicability of the project. The project management plan describes details of the different projects under Bendigo Education Plan that are proposed for the 39 recommendations in the Bendigo Education Plan plan. In the first section of the Bendigo Education Plan project management plan, there is an introductory section that describes the background of Bendigo Education Plan. It describes the three critical pillars of the Bendigo Education Plan plan as the requirements of the Bendigo youths in terms of education and extra-curricular, requirement of the dynamic schooling rather than contemporary schooling process and revolutionize learning by different learning choices, depth, challenge, authenticity and technical connectivity. (BEP, 2006) It also describes the groups under which there are 39 recommendations of Bendigo Education Plan. The scopes of Bendigo Education Plan project is also described in this section. As a part of the project management plan, this section clearly outlines the background and the scope and objectives of the project. Following the introductory section, there is a section called project. It has different sub sections having details of the projects under Bendigo Education Plan from different categories. Details of total 18 projects of Bendigo Education Plan are listed under the section called project. Each of this project has a description of how the project will be carried out, what is the timing and inter dependencies of the project, what are the key deliverables and who is responsible for the project. There is an accompanying project gantt chart showing these project, the relationships and timings. The format is different than formal project management report. (BEP, 2006) In the next section there is a risk management section. There are detailed information about the risks management process including identification, evaluation and management of the risks associated with the projects. The final section of the project management plan contains details of the project governance. There is a project governance structure showing the working parties involved in the project governance and how they are involved. According to national competency standards for project management or ncspm, the structure of project management should include details of (Heldman, 2013) Project integrative processes Scope management Time management Cost management Quality management Human resource management Communication management Risk management Procurement management. All information about these topics should be a part of the project management plan. Project integrative processes includes the details of the integrations of other eight factors, scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, communication, risks and procurement. It states how the integration will be done within the boundaries of the scopes of the projects. The agreed baselines in the contracts with the supplier or clients, made in the project should be followed. There are many tradeoffs between different sets of competitive forces in a project also there are other alternatives. The project objectives should meet at any situation and those should not be crossed. The rule is to fulfill the baselines and this is to be followed throughout the whole project life cycle. There may be influences from environments. The project planning and project management process should consider those and decide how to deal with those. (Hill, 2009) The scope management process related the work needed to produce the end results or products from the project to the expected products of the project. There should be an initial justification of the project start up, details of the deliverables by the project, project constraints and objectives. Defining project scopes is like making the foundation of the project management plan, based on this plan rest of the plans will be done and integrated with the scope management plan. Next part of the project management plan in the time management plan. The activities in a project like the development, analysis and controls of the projects have some schedule, timeline, inter-dependencies. Meeting those properly is a critical part of the overall project management plan. The project objectives should be met but the limits of the schedule and the time frames allocated for each activities should not be broken. Time management helps in balancing the cost, capability and quality of a project. The right balance of these is very important success factor of the overall project. Any project has some budget. In the cost management process, the expected cost to carry out each project activities is considered and the total project cost is refined. It helps in producing a realistic project budget with enough analysis. This is an important role player that controls the cost of the overall project. Cost management is also a critical success factors for a project that helps in balancing, time, capability and quality properly. Next comes quality management. As already discussed, other than schedule and cost, quality of the project deliverables and the overall project is a critical role player in success of the project. The activities in a project are needed to be carried out is such a way that the quality policy of the project is optimized. The standards are posed on the objectives of the project through project quality management. The larger goal and aspect of quality management is to gain more customer satisfaction. Quality planning is a continuous process. The control and assurance of quality management is also the same, these brings continuous improvement to the overall project along the entire life cycle of the project. The human resources or the project teams should work in a cohesive way. The common purposes of these teams is adherence to the project objectives. In the human resource management process, the requirement of human resources in each of the project activities is identified and evaluated. During identification of the requirement of human resources for each of the project activities, it needs to consider the organizational mix and he core project teams. Recruitment of staffs, selection and providing training to the selected staffs, all comes under human resource management process. This is to be done according to the changes during the life cycle of the project. (Heldman, 2013) Communications is an important part of any organization and any project. In the process of project communication management, the communication across of the project teams, client etc. Are managed. There will be sharing of ideas, information etc. In an organized and optimized way as a result of effective communication management process. It generates, collects, and disseminates, stores and disposes information related to the process through some formal processes and structures, helps in decision making activities, controlling networks of informal communications and helps in meeting the project objectives. procurement Risk management is the process of identifying, evaluating, mitigating and managing risks though out the life cycle of the project. The basic aim of project risk management is to optimize the positive risks or opportunities and minimizing the impacts of negative risks of threats. It also need to record the risk management process and outcomes, knowledge gathered from the process. (Heldman, 2010) The final one is procurement management, there are lots of activities in procurement management. It handles all market analysis, contractual information etc. There may be tendering for seeking contracts from vendors. Other than that it includes, monitoring, managing and administering the contracts from the very beginning of the project management. However, the procurement activities are started to be recorded from the beginning of the project planning and this is refined throughout the entire project life cycle. The objectives of the project are needed to be made in procurement management also. (Kousholt, 2007)(Fleming, 2003). In case of Bendigo Education Plan, these information are not structured in this way or information are missing. First of all, there is no structured information about the project integrative processes. The integration of project budgets, schedule, risks and contracts to the scope of the project has not been described in the Bendigo Education Plan project management plan. Details of the external and internal influential environmental details are also not given in the document. (Kloppenborg, 2014) The scopes of the project have nee outlines, but there is mention of the scope management process. The time management details is also absent in the Bendigo Education Plan project management plan. There is no reference to any type of information about the project cost, budget management etc. Also there is no information about the quality management for the project, what standards are to be followed etc. Human resources is a critical aspect of the Bendigo Education Plan projects. No details about the human resource management process is also present in the Bendigo Education Plan project management plan. There is no information about the communication management and procurement management also. However, there is enough information about the risk management for the Bendigo Education Plan projects. Thus, the Bendigo Education Plan project management report lacks critical information about the project management details. Contents of project management plan As already stated, the project management plan for Bendigo Education Plan, has not all required sections of a project management document. It consists of an introductory section, a brief details of the projects that are supposed to be carries out under Bendigo Education Plan, a schedule of the project plans, risk analysis and project governance plan. So, there are a lot of information missing or partially provided. In this section, the given information will be analyzed only. (Cohen, 2001) At first there is an introductory section that describes the o0verview of the project. It basically contains the scopes and objectives of the project. It will helps to understand the context of the project. Then, there is a section outlining the projects under the Bendigo Education Plan. There is very brief information about the project. It just gives information of the outlines of the project. It lacks the details of the activities, requirement of the resources, and scope of each project. Based on these outlining information a schedule Gantt chart have been prepared. The Gantt chart also gives an idea of the project duration and interdependencies among the projects. (Young, 2013) Then, there is a risk management section. It outlines, the risks associated to the Bendigo Education Plan as a whole. The risks related to Bendigo Education Plan has been identified as project budget, variations and constructions, implementation of the projects under Bendigo Education Plan recommendations within the stipulated time frame. A risk register is also drafted for outlining the identified risks associated to the projects, the levels of impacts for each of those risks, probable mitigation plans. The risk register contains lot of criteria for evaluations of the identified risks. For example, it contains a risk reference number for referring to some identified risk uniquely, a category of the identified risk. The risk categories have been identified and developed from a risk categorization matrix. No explicit information about the risk categorization matrix for the risk register has been given there. There are other risk register attributes like, risk description, risk owner, impact score, likelihood score, raw risk score, acceptance of risk, current mitigation actions, mitigation effectiveness ratings, residual risk score, acceptance of risks, required treatment actions, timing and review date. Two five point rating scale has been developed for risk impact matrix and risk likelihood matrix. A risk owner can be the person who is responsible for the risk. The person may be some private party, government etc. Residual risk score has been calculated as the product of impact ratin g, likelihood rating and mitigation effectiveness rating of a risk. The final residual risk score sets the priority of the risk. (Heldman, 2010) Finally there is a description of the project governance of the Bendigo Education Plan. The overall responsibilities of the project is laid on Bendigo Education Plan board. The main responsibilities of the project are, approval of the strategic and operational planning of the project, delivery of the Bendigo Education Plan, oversight and approval of the communication strategies to be followed in Bendigo Education Plan projects, overseeing the milestones and achievements of Bendigo Education Plan milestones, approval of the overall project budget. There is a list containing the name and details of the Bendigo Education Plan project board, who are there for which responsibility. (BEP, 2006) The accountabilities of Bendigo Education Plan project director are also stated in the project management plan accountabilities are strategically management and facilitation of the Bendigo Education Plan implementation meting the objectives, scope, budget, community expectations and other considerations, identification of the authority provided for active management and advices, development, management and implementation of the communication strategies, development and maintenance of partnership with various key stakeholders, management of the interdependencies and interrelationships in the project. (Fusco, 1997) The lists containing the members of the implementation committee, working practices to be followed in the project, master planning committee and its role, etc. Are also given as a part of the project governance under project management plan. The master planning committee has a role to oversee the build program. The build program is a project under the Bendigo Education Plan.(BEP, 2006) Even there is lots of missing and partial information, still the Bendigo Education Plan helps to understand context of the project, expected duration of the project and the objectives of the project. But there are a lot of important information that are missing and it makes the project management plan incomplete. There is no information about the budget and quality of the project. For project management, budget, schedule and quality are very important. Also there is lack of information about the integration of all aspects of project management with the scopes of the project. There is also very little information about the external and internal environmental influences in the project. Expectation of the community is a driving factor behind the project. It describes the requirements of dynamic and more technical education environment for the youth in bendigo. The opportunities and threats in the given context is not describes in the risk document, hence, the documentation also lacks de tails. (Larson Gray, 2011) Conclusion To conclude the discussion on critical analysis of the project management plan from the Bendigo educational plan, it can be said at the first place that the project management plan is incomplete and lacks important details of most of the aspects of an effective project management plan. As described in the report, if it is compared to the theoretical project management plan framework, then there is lots of dissimilarities. There are total 8 aspects of a project management plan according to the theory. Those are the scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, risk, communication and procurement. The project plan of Bendigo Education Plan lacks most of it. As discussed, the plan has described the scopes, but it lacks details of the scope management and how different aspects of the project management plan integrates with the scopes of the project. There is only a schedule having terms as project duration. There is no specific project duration, the schedule only outlines the projects, and it does not give any details of the work break down structure of the projects. As there are many projects under the same Bendigo Education Plan, so the WBS of each project is needed to understand the big picture. There is no information about the budget of the project, how quality control management will be carried out, how human resource management will be done, how procurement and communication management will be done. There is only a detailed information about the risks of the project. The aspects like scheduling, budget and quality controls are important for success of any project. The strengths of the project is it is a government initiated project and covers the requirement of a vast portion of the community. The weakness is, there is lack of clear understanding of the project management plan, and it may create confusion about the project management in later part of the project life cycle. Recommendation The chosen PMP framework is a complete and detailed project management plan framework. It covers almost all aspects of a project management plan. It will help to carry out the project development in a more organized and hassle freeway. It is recommended for Bendigo Education Plan project to follow the PMP framework. That will help them to uncover different aspects of the project. As this is a larger project and the impact will be significant on the lives of the parents, students, teachers of Bendigo, so, the project should be carried out in the best possible way. To do so, it needs to have a detailed and solid project management plan. Otherwise issues may rise up in the middle of the project development that may lead to severe consequences. For example, there is no clear understanding of the schedule and cost of the project. As there are critical projects to be carried out and there are interdependencies among the projects, so, there are high changes to be tangled up in the activitie s and interdependences in the middle of the project, risks of schedule slippage, cost overrun etc. To avoid such cases, it needs to have a good project management plan, possibly as guided in the given project management plan from theory. References Anon., 2010. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. PMI. Anon., n.d. Virtual Project Management global knowledge. [Online] Available at: https://www.globalknowledge.com/training/course.asp?pageid=9courseid=10276catid=196country=United+States [Accessed 2014]. BEP, 2006. Bendigo Education Plan: Project Plan. s.l.:BEP. Cohen, D. a. R. G., 2001. The Project Managers MBA. In: San Francisco: s.n. Department of Education' Victoria, 2006. Bendigo Education Plan, s.l.: s.n. Fleming, Q. W., 2003. Project Procurement Management: Contracting, Subcontracting, Teaming. s.l.:FMC Press. Fusco, J. C., 1997. Better Policies Provide the Key to Implementing Project Management. Project Management Journal. Heldman, K., 2010. Project Manager's Spotlight on Risk Management. s.l.:John Wiley Sons. Heldman, K., 2013. PMP: Project Management Professional Exam Study Guide. s.l.:John Wiley Sons. Hill, G. M., 2009. The Complete Project Management Methodology and Toolkit. s.l.:CRC Press. Hillson, D., 2012. Managing Risk in Projects. s.l.:Gower Publishing, Ltd.. Hobbs, P., 2009. Project Management. s.l.:Dorling Kindersley Limited. Kerzner, H. R., 2013. Project Management. s.l.:John Wiley Sons. Kloppenborg, T., 2014. Contemporary Project Management. s.l.:Cengage Learning. Kousholt, B., 2007. Project Management Theory and practice. s.l.:s.n. Larson, E. W. Gray, C. F., 2011. Project Management. s.l.:McGraw Hill. Lester, A., 2013. Project Management, Planning and Control. s.l.:Butterworth-Heinemann. Lock, D., 2007. Project Management. s.l.:s.n. Maylor, H., 2003. Project Management. s.l.:Pearson. Meredith, J. R. Mantel, J. S. J., 2011. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. s.l.:John Wiley Sons. Newton, R., 2013. The Project Management Book. s.l.:Pearson UK. PMBOK, 2013. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. s.l.:Project Management Institute, Incorporated. PMI, 2010. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. s.l.:s.n. Roberts, P., 2011. Effective Project Management. s.l.:Kogan Page Publishers. Shenhar, A. J. Dvir, D., 2013. Reinventing Project Management. s.l.:Harvard Business Press. Spinner, M., 1992. Elements of Project Management. s.l.:Prentice Hall. Taylor, J., 2008. Project Scheduling and Cost Control: Planning, Monitoring and Controlling the Baseline. s.l.:J. Ross Publishing. Westland, J., 2007. The Project Management Life Cycle. s.l.:Kogan Page Publishers. Young, T. L., 2013. Successful Project Management. s.l.:Kogan Page Publishers.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
The Last Day of High School The First Day of the Rest of My Life Essay The last day of my high school career is fast approaching and I can only imagine how Ill be feeling when I step out of S.F. Austins grounds for the very last time. Throughout these four years, I have felt a lot of urgency about graduating high school. I didnt think that the time to graduate would come soon enough. But now, that time is finally nearing. I cannot believe that it has come this fast. I remember my first days of high school. I was just dying to experience all the new and exciting things that awaited me. From sports to girls to all the partying, I just wanted to know what everything was like. And now that Ive done all those things and many more, I am about to embark on a new adventure that will take me to many more new experiences. Some say that high school was the best time of my life, just like others say that high school was the worst time in their lives. To be honest, I am not sure which category I fall into. Ive had plenty of good times, as well as just as many bad times, in high school. The only thing I can say is that I learned. And the most important thing is that, not just that I learned through the books, but I learned about life and the road ahead of me. We will write a custom essay on The Last Day of High School The First Day of the Rest of My Life specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now From being an inexperienced freshman to a somewhat mature senior, things have really changed for me. I started high school as a brash and cocky athlete, dying to conquer the world, which I did not know much about. I will leave high school as a world-weary senior, knowing that there are many dangers to encounter in the real world. Realistically, I do not know what the world out there holds for me. All I can do is enter it with a guarded optimism and hope for the best.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Business Analysis (England) Essay Business Analysis (England) Essay BETTER BIKES INC. Company Reflection Prepared for: BetterBikes Inc. Board of Directors Prepared by: (CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s and Co-founders) April 4, 2014 Proposal number: 123-4567 ! !1 of 18 ! BETTER BIKES INC. Executive Summary ! ! To The Board of Directors: ! I proudly present this analysis of BetterBikes inc. For the past 3 years; encompassing marketing, operations and Ã¯ ¬ nance. Contained within this report are our various decisions as a company and what we can do going forward to ensure success. Currently we hold a Shareholder Value of $15.22 which is substantially less than that of our competitors and although we have suffered a great lay-off period with some of our essential members I believe the tactics we have employed stand true and with some revision we can pull ahead. An industrial shift is on the rise and this is the perfect chance for us as a company to drive moral and make a stronger impression on the market. Our greatest competitor is LifeBikes Inc. which hold an SHV of $91.04, our present goal is to emulate some of the decisions they have made while improving on them. Speaking with my operations managers I have assessed our strategy so far to be focused on the quality of products with a low supply. Considering this strategy I insist that we maintain our level of quality but also increase supply, this will undoubtedly be costly but it is a sacriÃ¯ ¬ ce worth making as we have seen this sort of success in our competition. A key measure to keep in mind is the fact that we are targeting retailers and retailers respond well to quality but !2 of 18 ! BETTER BIKES INC. they require quantity as well. Our focus should be aimed towards a certain market, namely youth bikes. I suggest youth bikes because this is an area where our competitors are particularly dormant and if we can command this market it will bring the attention of a niche market. We have proved to be a force to be reckoned with but now we need to ascend to our proverbial throne as captains of industry. With a more customer focused approach our SHV will double within the coming year. As CEO I undoubtedly state that with our resources and talented team can achieve greatness within the market. ! Regards, ! ! President & CEO ! !3 of 18 ! Affirmation Statement ! 1. intellectual property from sources, other than the data provided in the multi- player version of Mike's Bikes, used in the completion of this assignment. 2. A proper bibliography has been included, which includes acknowledgement of all sources used to complete this assignment other than data provided in the multi- player version of Mike's Bikes. 3. This is the Ã¯ ¬ rst time that any member of the team has submitted this assignment (either partially or entirely) for academic evaluation. 4. Each member of the team has read the full content of the submission and is assured that the content is free of violations of academic integrity. Team discussions regarding the importance of academic integrity have taken place. 5. Each student has identiÃ¯ ¬ ed his or her individual contribution to the work submitted such that if a violation of academic integrity is suspected, then the student primarily responsible for the violations may be identiÃ¯ ¬ ed. Note that in this case the remainder of the team may also be subject to disciplinary action. All team members have referenced and footnoted all ideas, words or other The team members listed below have participated in the preparation of this assignment and no other individuals have contributed to this assignment, except as acknowledged. ! Name: Peda Ristic Thomas Edward Mcneely ! Due Date: April 04 2014 Section 003, Group 3, Team 1 TA: Mobeen Ul Haq Malik !4 of 18 ! Table of Contents ! Page 01 - Title page Pages 02-03 - Executive Summary Page 04 - AfÃ¯ ¬ rmation Statement Pages 06-09 - 2013-2014 Review
Friday, November 22, 2019
Benefits And Opportunities For Business Using Internet Marketing The website helps businesses to communicate- for example customers can fill in questionnaires or surveys about the website or store this helps the business to improve. Customers can easily go on website to make queries or enquiries, for example on the B&Q website when you click on Ã¢â¬ËContact UsÃ¢â¬â¢ and then click on the Ã¢â¬ËEnquiriesÃ¢â¬â¢ this shows you the another link that has a test of Ã¢â¬ËGeneral Enquiry.Ã¢â¬â¢ When you click on Ã¢â¬ËGeneral EnquiryÃ¢â¬â¢ the site gives you a webpage and customers can easily fill in a quick Enquiry form- that has the Title, Name, Address, etc also a box that you can fill in Enquiry details. When the customer is done filling in the Enquiry Form the customer can click on Ã¢â¬ËSubmit.Ã¢â¬â¢ This is good for the B&Q because you get quick feedback due to it being quicker than customer writing a letter (Serve- Add Value and Save- Save Costs). Easier to promote their products- especially when B&Q products are on Special Offer s, Sales, for Example B&Q on their homepage has Ã¢â¬ËThe Half Price Sale,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ë15% Off Everything from 26th to 30th January 2010 in Stores onlyÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ë15% Off Selected Switches and Sockets,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ë50% of Selected Power Tools,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ë20% Off Selected Heating More Lines Added.Ã¢â¬â¢ This is an advantage for the business because it helps them to promote their customers and non-customers. Those who do not have the time to travel to B &Q or those who are not aware about their products in store and the Sales (Save- Save Costs and Sizzle- Extend the brand online). More frequent individualised communications to build relationship- When customers have an account with B&Q, the business send emails of deals, promotions and products consumers may be interested in. This is benefit to B&Q for the reason that it promotes their products to gain one-to-one relationship (Relationship deepening), increase their sales and avoids their customers going to their compe titors. Opportunities for Product Development Use of Internet Information to Identify Product Development- this is a benefit to B&Q because they can also use the Internet to gather information about the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ views and perceptions about their websites, their products and improvements the company could make. This is an advantage for B&Q given that it would help them to satisfy their customer and get new customers too plus it would be much cheaper and save time for B&Q to carry this online then to pay loads money to their staff who would have to go to the high street and ask these same questions to people or the staff goes in the B&Q store to ask their customers but most people may not want to be stopped in store, since they prefer just to shop around. Ability to link traditional methods with online marketing (Ã¢â¬Ëbricks and clicksÃ¢â¬â¢) Ã¢â¬â this is again great B&Q because it enables them to promote their products online and offline. Plus it helps to generate sa les due to the fact that customers could order a product online that may not be in stock (Sell- Grow Sales). This is an advantage since the business can promote to those who do not shop in stores (online customers).
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Philosophy - Assignment Example Then test the new forms by means of the five rules to determine validity. Some people who do not regret their crimes are convicted murderers, so some convicted murderers are people insusceptible of being reformed, since all people susceptible of being reformed are people who regret their crimes. 1) All Peace Corps volunteers (PV) are people who have witnessed poverty and desolation (PD), and all people insensitive to human need PI are people who have failed to witness poverty and desolation non-PD. Thus, all Peace Corps volunteers PV are people sensitive to human need.non PI 2) All aircraft that disintegrate AD in flight are unsafe planes non-SP. Therefore, no poorly maintained PA aircraft are safe planes SP, because all well-maintained aircraft non-PA are aircraft that remain intact in flight IF. 3) No objects that sink OS in water are chunks of ice CI, and no objects that float non-OS in water are things at least as dense as water DW. Accordingly, all chunks of ice CI are things less dense than water non-DW. 4) All schools driven by careerism SC are institutions that do not emphasize liberal IL arts. It follows that some universities UN are not institutions that emphasize liberal arts IL, for some schools that are not driven by careerism non-SC are universities UN. 5) No cases of AIDS AD are infections easily curable by drugs ED, since all diseases that infect the brain DB are infections not easily curable by drugs non-ED , and all diseases that do not infect the brain non-DB are cases other than AIDS non-AD. Whenever suicide rates decline, we can infer that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives are better adjusted. Accordingly, since suicide rates have been declining in recent years, we can infer that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives have been better adjusted in recent years. 5) If marriage is based on a meshing of neuroses, it allows little room for growth. If a marriage allows little room for growth, it is bound to fail.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Global health issue - Lung Cancer - Assignment Example Likewise, case-control studies and recent prospective cohort which have factored tobacco smoking and occupational and various cancer risk factors, have constantly to report upsurges in lung cancer related to air pollution. In light of the done research, the question is perhaps not Ã¢â¬Å"Are some lung cancers caused by air pollution?Ã¢â¬ , but rather Ã¢â¬Å"What are the excess cases likely to be caused? The existing evidence from the research suggests that proper education and awareness of the negative consequences will relatively assist to lessen the possibility and effectively cure the issues related to lung cancer but silent on the specific environmental risk factors related to air pollution. This is a concern for lung cancer is attributable to air pollution that can occur among both notorious smokers and non-smokers, and thus both effect modification and residual confounding of the air pollution and another environmental relative risk due to smoking must be well-thought-out. Na fstad et al report the relative risks of air pollution adjusted for cigarette smoking, but adjustment cannot have organized completely for possible confounding. The authors recognize that their research has information or details on cigarette smoking merely at the start of the follow-up period. Further studies and real-time solutions of outdoor air pollution globally and lung cancer in will need to detail concurrent or past exposures to various risk factors, particularly now that there is an increasing trend in the rates of global warming.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Alcohol Beverage Essay Throughout the history of television, viewers have raised many questions about alcohol advertising. How is advertising affecting us? Does it have an impact on alcohol abuse or alcohol related disease and death? Does advertising influence alcohol consumption? In this essay, I will mainly concentrate on why such alcoholic advertisements should be restricted; and to what extent should any governments be able to control advertising. My personal opinion that I maintain is that I agree with having restrictions on alcoholic beveragesÃ¢â¬â¢ advertisements on TV, by focusing more on responsible drinking and on problems that drinking causes every year because of irresponsibility of its consumer. I also stand by my opinion because young people are negatively affected by those ads, since there are no messages for responsible action while drinking. Moreover, statistics show that alcohol-related admissions to hospital in United States have reached 20% in 1995. With other words, most of cases sent to our hospitals were alcohol related, which potentially leads to violence, accidents and health issues. Alcohol is thought to cause thirty thousand premature deaths a year. Therefore, it may cause physical and mental harm to its consumers. The two main media tools that help advertising for alcohol are Televised programs and radio channels. These giant corporations make millions of dollars advertising for alcoholic beverages with having minimal advices on responsible drinking and reckless behaviors that can be caused primarily because of it. My personal believe is that too excessive exposure to alcoholic advertisement can increase consumption and influence peoples attitudes towards alcohol especially for youngster as they have not formed the correct understanding of it. In order to prevent the large amount of alcoholic advertising that appears on media, over the last few decades, government have set far stricter guidelines and regulations concerning alcohol. Some of these limitations and restrictions are particularly made for advertising for alcoholic drinks. Some of these restrictions include limiting the timing of advertisements on television and allow alcohol related ads to be displayed only after 10:00pm, which will avoid youth exposure to it. Nowadays, Alcohol advertisement is at its peak on sport events. This is why prohibiting the liquor company from being the official sponsor in sport must be considered. As Professor Gilmore said, limitations should include alcohol sponsorship in sport, as the alcohol was being advertised 24 hours a day. Besides, the contents of advertisement should be restricted, images like violence and potential crime should be forbidden, as it is easy for young people doing the same things that show on television. On the other hand, both in public and private sectors are responsible in joining their efforts to help to set out limitations and restrict alcohol promotion and sales through ads. For instance, clubs should abolish the unlimited drinks to a certain time only with fixed amount of money, and restrict underage people from being exposed to a place where alcohol is heavily consumed. Besides, the price should be increased to reduce the alcohol consumption and alcohol producers should develop a new production line, as an alternative to replace alcohol. Now, alcohol has spread in our culture and society and became the symbol of fun and pleasure. Its consumption has increased more than ever did in mankind history and their effects are increasing with it as well. Advertising for alcohol is not only encouraging our youth to drink more which will affect their health but also promotes reckless and irresponsible behaviors associated with its consumption. Our government is more aware of the seriousness of this issue than ever, however further laws and restrictions must take place in the future in order to decrease its negative effects.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Analysis of OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s Soliloquy During OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s soliloquy in Scene 3, ll. 299-318, Shakespeare uses the literary devices of imagery, symbolism, and antithesis to develop the state of mind of Othello during this strenuous time in his life. Othello, who seems to intrinsically believe that as a public figure he is fated to be unsuccessful at marriage, is torn between his love for Desdemona and the possibility that she is having an affair with Michael Cassio. This particular passage comes at a juncture after he denies that this could be true, and before he is finally convinced of his wife's infidelity. The fact that Othello is wavering between believing Iago and trusting his wife is reflected in the imagery Shakespeare uses in the soliloquy. The first image that is used is that of a falcon. Lines 301-304 read: Ã¢â¬Å"If I do prove her haggard, / Though that her jesses were my dear heartstrings, / IÃ¢â¬â¢d whistle her off and let her down the wind to prey at fortune.Ã¢â¬ This shows that Othello is still unsure about Desdemona, and claims that though he is in love with Desdemona, he would drop her if he found out she was cheating. This is quite a strong willed statement, but it is diminished by lines 319-320, which follow the entrance of Desdemona and Emilia into the chamber. Othello says, Ã¢â¬Å"If she be false, heaven mocks itself! / IÃ¢â¬â¢ll not believe Ã¢â¬Ët.Ã¢â¬ This is an example of how turbulent OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s state of mind is. The steadfast determination expressed using the falcon image sort of Ã¢â¬Å"meltsÃ¢â¬ when he sees Desdemona, and he immediately pro fesses denial that she could be untrue to him. Yet, just ten lines earlier (l. 308), Othello says, Ã¢â¬Å"SheÃ¢â¬â¢s gone! I am abused!Ã¢â¬ and proceeds to lament the very institution of marriage: Ã¢â¬Å"O cure of marriage, ? That we can call these delicate creatures ours / And not their appetites!Ã¢â¬ ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s placing of these three different conclusions Othello has drawn in such close proximity is an example of antithesis, and a testament to the changing and chaotic state of mind of Othello. Additional symbols are used in the soliloquy which exemplify this as well. In lines 311-314, he says: Ã¢â¬Å"I had rather be a toad / And live upon the vapor of a dungeon / Than to keep in the corner the thing I love / For othersÃ¢â¬â¢ uses.
Monday, November 11, 2019
?There could be several conflicts that arise when working on a program to develop a new program for the hospital when adapting the program from the post modernist/complexity science strategy. Working with several different representatives from different aspects of the hospital, there will be different ideas, visualizations and outcomes for each group. The post modernist/complexity science strategy Ã¢â¬Å"focuses on the importance of connections and interdependencies for creating emergent order in networked systemsÃ¢â¬ .When working with different populations of people, (in this case, the medical director, the chief of staff, and the medical staff) their focus and attention may be on different aspects of the new program. This could cause a problem for connections and relationships to develop and work efficiently. One group of people could be focused on the development of a nutritional program where as another group may be more focused on the medical aspect.All these representatives need to listen and compromise to be able to proficiently come up with a new program for the hospital. Without good connections and interdependencies to create order, this would be a very hard task. Second, when developing a new plan, each representative needs to understand that there will be change. The world is always changing and at any given time, one age demographic may need more services than others.If this new program was being developed today, this group of people would need to make sure that they took into account the large number of people who will be age 65 and older, and the explosion this population will continue to see for several more years. The post modernist/complexity science strategy states that Ã¢â¬Å"the search for equilibrium, a balance, a stable state, is futileÃ¢â¬ . The developers of the new program would need to make sure there is room for change within the new program.They would need to be able to understand that what peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are for today w ill be the same for them tomorrow, or in 5 years. There must be flexibility, their ideas and the program must be built for flexibility. Both the post modernist/complexity science strategies do not Ã¢â¬Å"accept(s) the world as is; rather, both believe in the transformative power of events and ideasÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . If all parties involved do not follow these same ways of thinking, it could be very hard for a team to develop a new program that would thrive in the current times and the future. James, J. (2009). Post Modernist/Complexity Science Strategy There could be several conflicts that arise when working on a program to develop a new program for the hospital when adapting the program from the post modernist/complexity science strategy. Working with several different representatives from different aspects of the hospital, there will be different ideas, visualizations and outcomes for each group. The post modernist/complexity science strategy Ã¢â¬Å"focuses on the importance of connections and interdependencies for creating emergent order in networked systemsÃ¢â¬ .When working with different populations of people, (in this case, the medical director, the chief of staff, and the medical staff) their focus and attention may be on different aspects of the new program. This could cause a problem for connections and relationships to develop and work efficiently. One group of people could be focused on the development of a nutritional program where as another group may be more focused on the medical aspect. All these representatives need to listen and compromise to be able to proficiently come up with a new program for the hospital.Without good connections and interdependencies to create order, this would be a very hard task. Second, when developing a new plan, each representative needs to understand that there will be change. The world is always changing and at any given time, one age demographic may need more services than others. If this new program was being developed today, this group of people would need to make sure that they took into account the large number of people who will be age 65 and older, and the explosion this population will continue to see for several more years.The post modernist/complexity science strategy states that Ã¢â¬Å"the search for equilibrium, a balance, a stable state, is futileÃ¢â¬ . The developers of the new program would need to make sure there is room for change within the new program. They would need to be able to understand that what peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are for today w ill be the same for them tomorrow, or in 5 years. There must be flexibility, their ideas and the program must be built for flexibility.Both the post modernist/complexity science strategies do not Ã¢â¬Å"accept(s) the world as is; rather, both believe in the transformative power of events and ideasÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . If all parties involved do not follow these same ways of thinking, it could be very hard for a team to develop a new program that would thrive in the current times and the future. James, J. (2009). Health Organizations Theory, Behavior, and Development. Saudbery: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Volcanic Landforms Volcano is essentially a fissure or vent (opening) which serves as an outlet for hot magma from beneath the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust. The hot liquid magma coming out in the form of lava (most commonly molten basalt) is potential of shaping different landforms on earth crust. The most common landforms that are results of volcanic activity include cones, craters, calderas, domes etc. This article gives a description of these volcanic landforms. SHIELD VOLCANOES- These are characterised by gentle upper slopes. The slope varies from only 5 degrees to 10 degrees.The shield volcanoes are made up of mainly thin lava flows around central vent. The low viscosity lava (low silica content) travels down gently and as it cools down it creates less steeper lower slope. These are also found at the flanks of bigger volcanoes like Kilauea is situated on the Hawaiian shield volcano. STRATOVOLCANOES- These are characterised somewhat steeper slopes (30 degrees to 40degees) near the vent a nd the summit due to highly viscous lava flows are not able to travel long distances before they cool down.The less steeper slopes at the base is due to erosional activity. The show inter layering of pyroclastic material and thus sometimes also called composite volcanoes. Pyroclastic material make upto 50% of a stratovolcano. They show a long time of repose which makes them quite dangerous. CINDER CONES- They are small volume cones build up by fall deposites around the eruptive vent. There slope is around 25-30 degrees. During later stages of eruptions the lava may come out from the flanks. Cinder and tephra cones usually occur around summit vents and flank vents of stratovolcanoes.MAARS- The magma heats up the groundwater and converts it into vapours which builds up pressure and results in eruptions containing water and pre-existing rocks. Walls of crater fall back into crater and fills it with loose material. If the crater depth reaches below the water table of the region, the maa rs often fill up with water. LAVA DOMES- The viscous lava or rhyolitic lava is not able to flow far away from the vent, it rather accumulates over the vent. The forecoming lava from the vent pushes and the upper solidified outer surface rolls down to the flank.The slope is very rough due to spines pushed up by the magma below. CRATERS AND CALDERAS- Craters are the depressions which are the results of explosions emitting gases and tephras. They can range upto 1km in diameter. Calderas are large depressions, circular or elliptical in shape with diameters ranging from 1 km to 50 km. Calderas form as a result of collapse of a volcanic structure. The collapse results from evacuation of the underlying magma chamber. The evacuation process of lava chambers in stratovolcanoes in rapid and as the lava goes out the walls collapse and form a large crater.They are enclosed depressions which often collect rain water and snow melt and may form lakes. Like Crater Lake in southern Oregon is about 8 km in diameter and dated to be formed around 6800years ago. FUMAROLES- A fumarole is vent where gases, either from a magma body at depth, or steam from heated groundwater, emerges at the surface of the Earth. Since most magmatic gas is H2O vapor, and since heated groundwater will produce H2O vapor, fumaroles will only be visible if the water condenses. H2O vapor is invisible, unless droplets of liquid water have condensed). HOT SPRINGS- Hot springs or thermal springs are areas where hot water comes to the surface of the Earth. Cool groundwater moves downward and is heated by a body of magma or hot rock. A hot spring results if this hot water can find its way back to the surface, usually along fault zonesGYESERS- A geyser results if the hot spring has a plumbing system that allows for the accumulation of steam from the boiling water.When the steam pressure builds so that it is higher than the pressure of the overlying water in the system, the steam will move rapidly toward the surfac e, causing the eruption of the overlying water. Some geysers, like Old Faithful in Yellowstone Park, erupt at regular intervals. The time between eruptions is controlled by the time it takes for the steam pressure to build in the underlying plumbing system. |
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all of the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe . . . all these famous cities and populations around lie in the Soviet sphere and all are subject . . . to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow.Ã¢â¬ With this section of Winston ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s famous speech in 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, he coined the term Ã¢â¬Å"Iron Curtain.Ã¢â¬ Most people believe that Winston Churchill was referring directly to the Berlin Wall, but he was actually talking about the general closing off of Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe. Even though the wall itself was not built until 1961, the Berlin Wall was the enduring symbol of that Ã¢â¬Å"Iron Curtain.Ã¢â¬ Understanding the reason for its construction, the heartache it caused, and the joy over its fall helps modern students relate to its symbolic role as an Ã¢â¬Å"Iron CurtainÃ¢â¬ (Ri se). The Berlin Wall was erected for one main reason: to keep East Berliners from escaping to West Berlin. After WWII, Berlin, the capital of Germany, was a ruined city. The WWII victors, the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union, divided Germany and Berlin in four sectors, each controlled by one of the four countries. At first, Berlin citizens could move freely between the sectors to work or to visit with friends and family. The American, British, and French sectors became democratic and capitalist, and the Soviet sector became a communist dictatorship. By 1948, the Soviet Union and democratic allies began to fight over how to govern Berlin, and on April 1, 1948 the Soviet Union blockaded routes in and out of East Berlin which trapped some two million Berliners with little food or fuel to live. The allies decided they needed to do something. So, they came up with the idea of the Berlin Airlift, which flew planes with food and supplies for the West Berliners, and ... Free Essays on The Rise And Fall Of The Berlin Wall Free Essays on The Rise And Fall Of The Berlin Wall Ã¢â¬Å"An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all of the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe . . . all these famous cities and populations around lie in the Soviet sphere and all are subject . . . to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow.Ã¢â¬ With this section of Winston ChurchillÃ¢â¬â¢s famous speech in 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, he coined the term Ã¢â¬Å"Iron Curtain.Ã¢â¬ Most people believe that Winston Churchill was referring directly to the Berlin Wall, but he was actually talking about the general closing off of Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe. Even though the wall itself was not built until 1961, the Berlin Wall was the enduring symbol of that Ã¢â¬Å"Iron Curtain.Ã¢â¬ Understanding the reason for its construction, the heartache it caused, and the joy over its fall helps modern students relate to its symbolic role as an Ã¢â¬Å"Iron CurtainÃ¢â¬ (Ri se). The Berlin Wall was erected for one main reason: to keep East Berliners from escaping to West Berlin. After WWII, Berlin, the capital of Germany, was a ruined city. The WWII victors, the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union, divided Germany and Berlin in four sectors, each controlled by one of the four countries. At first, Berlin citizens could move freely between the sectors to work or to visit with friends and family. The American, British, and French sectors became democratic and capitalist, and the Soviet sector became a communist dictatorship. By 1948, the Soviet Union and democratic allies began to fight over how to govern Berlin, and on April 1, 1948 the Soviet Union blockaded routes in and out of East Berlin which trapped some two million Berliners with little food or fuel to live. The allies decided they needed to do something. So, they came up with the idea of the Berlin Airlift, which flew planes with food and supplies for the West Berliners, and ...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Communism in China - Essay Example The failure of nationalist leader Chiang Kai-Shek to offer protection from the threat posed by Japan led to his abduction. He was forced by the abductors to reconsider cooperation with the communist army (Office of the Historian, n.d.). This laid a foundation for the rise of communism in the country. The other factor that contributed was the rise of a dictatorial regime. The nationalist government was accused of undemocratic policies and corruption (Office of the Historian, n.d.). The discontent of the population and poor policies made the country more vulnerable to communism ideals. On the other hand, China Communist Party (CCP) received overwhelming support from peasants due to land reforms it initiated and repelling of Japanese invaders (Office of the Historian, n.d.). Lastly, foreign intervention played a role in the rise of communism. The United States and Soviet Union influenced various issues in the country. United States was in support of Nationalist government while Soviet Union supported CCP. However, Soviet Union prevailed as it occupied Manchuria and only left when Chinese Communist forces were in a position to claim victory of the area (Office of the Historian, n.d.). This led to the establishment of communism in the larger part of the
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Analysis of Brutish You Have to Hand it to the Neanderthals after All - Research Paper Example On the contrary, the findings make it more probable that the Neanderthals made the paintings. The article also posits that the wrong dating resulted because scientists dated the paintings using the calcium carbonate layer, which is now believed to have accumulated on the artistic paintings years after the paintings had been made. This paper is an analysis of the article Ã¢â¬Å"Brutish? You have to hand it to the Neanderthals after allÃ¢â¬ authored by David Keys and featured in The Independent. The paper will also scrutinize additional research related to the articles content as well as dating of Palaeolithic cave painting in Europe. The paper will also try to establish the credibility of Keys' article and application of the research findings. Making use of a process referred to as uranium-series disequilibrium, the group that was led by Pike measured the radioactive decomposition of uranium and dated hand stencils and disks in El Castillo cave in Northern Spain. The paintings had been made by using the mouth to blow paint on the wall. The artistic paintings were found to be least 40,800 years old making them the oldest form of art in Europe. These results have ignited the debate on who is responsible for the cave paintings found in Spain and France. Previously, the paintings were attributed to modern humans but research acknowledges that modern man had not invaded Europe 41,000 years ago. At this period, Neanderthals inhabited Europe, which suggests that they could be responsible for these artistic paintings (Keys, 2012). Chauvet Cave paintings in central France were previously recognized as the world's oldest cave art paintings. The Chauvet cave paintings were dated 39,000 years old. However, the Chauvet cave dating is still controversial since it relies on radiocarbon dating making use of charcoal pigments. Archaeologists have put forward that dating based on charcoal pigments is unreliable since the pigments are susceptible to contamination by other forms of carbon, which would affect dating results. Additionally, using charcoal pigments could be erroneous in that the period when the fire was lit might not coincide with the time the painting was made (Keys, 2012; Pettitt and Pike, 2007). I selected this article due to its relevance to our understanding of the past andÃ human history particularly the interactions between the Neanderthals and Homo sapiens. Primordial cave paintings lend a hand in connecting the modern man to the past species. Understanding the activities of the Neanderthal is crucial since he was the immediate ancestor of Homo sapiens, the modern man. Understanding Neanderthal would thus enhance a better understanding of the development of the art of painting. Additionally the findings suggest that the Neanderthals could have been the inventors of cave painting but passed the art to Homo sapiens. Evidence shows that modern humans first appeared in Northern Spain about 41,500 years ago, as successors of the Neanderth als. These findings are contrary to current perceptions that the Homo sapiens instigated artistic painting and that Neanderthals did not practice cave painting (Zilh?ao, 2007; Keys, 2012). Another important aspect roused by these findings is that the interaction between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals coul
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Is Total Quality Management Enough For Competitive Advantage - Essay Example ers are becoming more and more aware, empowered, enlightened, and exposed to more products than anytime on the history of this planet (Tenner, & DeToro, pp. 123-159, 1992). They have substitutes for everything, businesses are being done at global levels and no part of the world is now isolated from the other parts (Ross, & Perry, pp. 78-96, 1999). This situation led the experts to come up with new ways to survive and magnify revenues. The concepts of total Quality Management and competitive advantage are a couple of them. This paper is devoted to the discussion that is total quality management enough for competitive advantage. Before the paper moves any further, it is important at this stage to understand and reflect on the basic concepts of Total Quality management and competitive advantage. Experts view total Quality management as a Ã¢â¬Å"Management or corporate philosophy that asks firms to strive for making the best use of all the available resources and integrating all organisational functions such as Research and development, Planning, Manufacturing, Customer Service, etc so that organisational goals of maximum profit and customer satisfaction could be attained in the best possible wayÃ¢â¬ (Hakes, pp. 12-38, 1991) (Gummer, & McCallion, pp. 45-92, 2007). There are many other elements attached with it. Authorities in Management studies regard total quality management as process through which, companies can successfully move on to the road of continuous enhancement and expansion, enchanted customers, empowered workforce that lead to lowest possible costs and highest possible returns (Ross, & Perry, pp. 78-96, 1999). It is imperative to understand here that there is a huge amount of debate going on the scope and dimensions of Total Quality management and different scholars have different approaches towards it (Gummer, & McCallion, pp. 45-92, 2007). There are a number of ideas regarding total quality management; however, all diverge on the single point of
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Chinas arms export to the developing countries in Asia - Essay Example In the context of the sudden increase in ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s arm exports in the last decade, two things are worth mentioning. First, the increase is primarily due to a sudden rise in volume of arms purchased by Pakistan in the last few years, wherein it accounts for more than 50 % of arms exported by China in the last five years (Holtom, Bromley, Wezeman and Wezeman, 2013). China has exported combat aircrafts in large numbers to Pakistan, while there are pending orders for frigates and submarines. Besides Pakistan, some of the recent arms deals with other countries, such as Venezuela, Morocco and Algeria, show that China is rapidly turning into a powerful arms dealer (Klare, 2013). Second, currently many research papers have focused on ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s development of advanced weapon technologies; however, these advanced forms of arms are not successful as the traditional ones within the global market. This is primarily because main importers of Chinese arms are the countries that aim at buy ing cheaper and less advanced weapons, even though China may have more advanced systems in offer. As for example, reports show that China exports more of F-7.2, which are technologically less advanced than the J-10 and J-11 models of fighter planes (Holtom, Bromley, Wezeman and Wezeman, 2013). Therefore, it is evident that while China gained significance as a global player within the arms export market, its buyers are mainly from the developing nations. Between 2006 and 2009, (Grimmett, 2011).
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Analysing Organisational Behaviour of British Airways This aim of this assignment to focus and analyse Organisational Behavior at British Airways. This assignment begins with summarizing the procedures used by it to motivate its employees and make them work as team towards the achievement of organizational goal. The purpose states that the study of the module Organisational Behavior needs to be applied in fundamental front by providing significant procedure to the company chosen and revise the employees value in the organisation. The assignment comprises of factors which are necessary for an organization to develop which are factors of Leadership, Motivation, spreading team effectiveness in the organization through the different channels of communication and use of different theories at different levels of the organization for its smooth functioning. To help the organisation in rebuilding its reputation, recommendations has been given and conclusion is been drawn. INTRODUCTION British Airways is the major airline which proposals the flights facilities added to 550 destinations. Customers can choose from first class, business, best and economy class. A facility comes a long way since that first flight. British Airways bids food services and a collection of amusing options counting movies, TV, games, and music. British Airways is the airline company of the United Kingdom. It has its headquarter in Waterside which is near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport and as found it is the biggest airline of UK on the record basis of number of international flights and international destinations it has. Its second hub is London Gatwick Airport. The British Airways Group was designed in 1974, September 1. BA was formed by the merger of two large London-based airlines, British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) and British European Airways Corporation (BEA), and two much smaller airlines, Cambrian Airways Cardiff and Northeast Airlines Newcastle upon Tyne. Only BA was one of the two airlines to operate the supersonic Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde capitalizing the worlds first supersonic service in January 1976 for the passengers. British Airways is registered on the London Stock Exchange (as BAY) and is a component of the FTSE 100 Index. On 31 March 2009 the airline renowned its 35th anniversary. On 12 November 2009, British Airways established that it had grasped a preliminary contract to combine with Iberia Airlines. The joined airline become the worlds third-largest carrier (after Delta Air Lines and American Airlines) in terms of annual report income. (http://www.britishairways.com) METHODS OF EVALUATING THE ORGANISATION LEADERSHIP Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal-setting and goal achievement (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007). Leaders impact our daily lives and futures. In good times and bad, there is always a need for strong leadership. The leaders determine the success of a business or an industry it chooses or inherits. How does someone earn the designation of being a great leader? History and current experiences provide guidance on how one might develop the abilities demonstrated by respected leaders. LEADERSHIP AT BA British Airways need great leaders to help its struggle with current trading conditions and achieve its long-term vision. A leading global best airline need be courageous and highly actual in emerging present and possible leaders. BA has introduced its High Performance Leadership (HPL) system during the year. This is system combined, business strategy linking, performance appraisal, growth and reward. Motivated the senior leaders primarily, HPL has demanding valuation instruments to identify gifted leaders and to provide them with the right tools and support to continue developing. BA well-defined, connected and initiated to degree of individual performance. For every ability, exact behaviors have been established so that leaders can know exactly what are the expectations and BA is supportive up to a range of expansion program, with executive coaching, systems, opportunities and outside courses. BA is also using new methods to quality of performance. These will allow BA to monitor progress of individual and path the overall accomplishment at supervision talent. Among the other leadership creativeness BA have initiated: Behaviors for Success it deals with the development program of leadership for the community of HPL, concentrating on sympathetic and emerging leadership performance of personal Leadership Matters a structure to identify and improve a leaders who have crucial roles in the Customer life and Actions areas of business of British Airways. A Leadership Development Portfolio this will be announce this year with the purpose of secondary existing and probable leaders of business at every level which includes the developing leaders. Case study To be in progressively competitive market, BA strong-minded operate to stand out from its challengers by recapturing the status for service leadership which it enjoyed in the 1990s. BA have hurled a planned marketing campaign by inviting customers to experience the difference and promote BA, BA standard that the key to bringing this aptitude in the air lay in the hands of 4,000 on-board cabin crew managers. To re-engage this precarious team of leaders the company should find some definite ways, it distinguished that all cabin crew would be released with its full potential, leading to inspiring the service knowledge of all customers of BA. To develop its leadership BA selected in 2007, NKD which was set to work producing an stimulating programme called Leadership Matters, merging with the latest leadership styles with practical methods for cabin crew managers to use in daily activities. The project initiated with an concentrated Discovery period where it was discovered through a series of centre groups: The productions from this phase manufactured the grounds upon which the whole progress programme was built: Once the programme was overall through with the aims, cabin crew managers were asked to the central part of Leadership Matters an appealing and reviving workshop for two days. The workshops themselves were intended to give leaders space and interval to consider their leadership style and the impression they have on their teams and customers. The energetic events aimed to attract the on-board leaders, and improve their skills as real as 21st Century leaders should possess. Every aspect of the workshops design the choice and presentation of the learning venue, event invites, the learning content itself, film, event materials and the style of facilitation was consistent with the BA service promise and the key traits ofÃ Modern Leadership. The result of this program were early indications suggest that Leadership Matters is proving a great success. Satisfaction ratings from delegates average an impressive 5.8 out of 6. The programme is successfully reconnecting leaders with the essence of their role and providing them with new skills and confidence to become effective Modern Leaders. (http://www.nkdlearning.co.uk/case-studies/british-airways-case-study/) MOTIVATION The history of motivational study has seen the rise of differing, but not equally exclusive methods to motivation. There are many challenging theories which endeavour to explain the landscape of motivation. Such theories are all at least to some extent true, and help clarify the behaviour of firm people at certain times. But, the study for a comprehensive theory of motivation at work seems ineffective. All the theories existing here have their critics but still any theory or study which helps in understanding of how best to motivate people at work must be beneficial. Even though there is no one single answer, as a group the different theories deliver a framework within which we can try to answer the query of how best to motivate individuals at work. We are therefore left to critic the relevance of these diverse theories, to a specific work situation ( Blane, ND). (http://www.examstutor.com/business/resources/studyroom/people_and_organisations/motivation_theory/index.php) TECHNIQUES USED BY BA TO MOTIVATE ITS EMPLOYEES Workplace BA endeavour to provide a working environment that will engages, supports, engages and develops its employees. The key factor of BA workplace pillar is to motivate its employees to be dedicated towards theirÃ duty as they are the ones who make the airline run and BA require them on the board till the journeys end. BA diversity and inclusion team has established a plan for the company that encourages all the employees with the aim of identifying aptitude and encouraging flexible rational. This plan is reinforced and united into all sections over BA senior level promoters and defenders. This in opportunity will identify and meet the varied needs of Ba employees. Another strategy BA have set up is for conflict and harassment resolution. To formulate this strategy BA has hired a total of 50 advisors and mediators employed across British Airways to make a culture where self-respect and admiration are trademarks of relationships at work, and where nuisance or mistreatment are not allowed to be abided. Rewards and recognition BA knows that what is the importance of reward in making it a great business holder to work. BA is very much dedicated in building an environment where BA employees feel valued and are known fairly in the organization for making their contribution in the organization individually. British Airways deals with two types of principal funded defined benefit pension schemes in the UK, the Airways Pension Scheme (APS) and the New Airways Pension Scheme (NAPS). From April 1, 2003, new employees were allowed to join the British Airways Retirement Plan (BARP). Smart Pension measures, which allow BA UK-based employees to make their pension contributions in a more tax well-organized way, were presented in early 2008. Around 90 per cent of those employees who are entitled are now benefiting from this arrangement. One of the main aim of BA is to provide total reward packages for its employees which will inspire them in high performance and exceptional customer service throughout the business However, BA substituted its grade based reward scheme for managers with a new broad band system which links rewards more closely to individual performance and ability. On the other hand BA Bravo recognition scheme allows it to distinguish people across their business for their hard work and attainments. Improved training In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training development is, it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employees attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge (Rao, 2009). Rao, D.(2009), HRM-Training and Development, June, MBAguys.net[Online] Available at: http://www.mbaguys.net/t2217/ Accessed on: 1st December] In the last year we delivered 235,000 days of training. We also welcomed some 3,100 people into the company which required a high level of induction training and a refresh for our new entrant training programmes. BA has established several training centre for its employees where they are been trained not practically but mentally too. BA invest more effectively in the development of its employees to build both their skills and educational standards for this it has opened several vocational study centres. With the help of these centres all new applicant of cabin crew can now achieve an NVQÃ LevelÃ 2 stipulation on accomplishment of their training which is comparable to 4 GCSEs. Leadership development Leadership is a major main concern for BA, for which BA have established a number of platforms to improve the competence and presentation of its leaders. This comprises of a day plan for all leaders, called LeadingÃ theÃ Business, which emphases on the experiments of managing variation, pleasing employees and bringing results to support the business plan. BA have also advanced a leadership website to deliver information and training resources to provision managers with all aspects of their characters. BA now mainly focus on talent and leadership expansion over the coming year as BA shape the ability it need for development. (http://www.britishairways.com) Abraham.H.MaslowÃ published A Theory of Human Motivation in 1943. In this work he argued that people areÃ wanting / needing beings. As such we always want more, and what we want depends on what we already have. Maslow suggested human needs can be arranged into a series of levels, aÃ hierarchyÃ of importance. Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Maslows theory of motivation is the theory which deals with the aspects of people needs in the place where they work. The theory describes about the unfulfilled needs of the employees which leads to conflicts in the organization. The structure of this theory is basically like a pyramid having five different sections of different needs. These are the basic needs of the people working which are need to be fulfilled so they can develop themselves as well as the company they working in, The levels are: Physiological Needs: It is the basic need of the people, it deals with the aspects like food, shelter, clothes, water in order to survive. People expect decent pay from where they work so they can fulfill their basic needs. Safety Needs: It is the need which is concerned with the physical, survival or sense of security. In workplaces people expect high standard of work, safety and security, intervals of rest, pension and medical treatment from the company. Social Needs : It deals with the aspects of love and affection. In workplaces people work hard and they form groups in which they require friendship. giving respect to each other and providing social facilities and friendly environment. Self-Esteem : It is one of the major factor of Maslows Theory of motivation as it speaks about ones self-respect. This means getting respect from others, feeling valued, having confidence and giving rewards for better performance in the company. Self-Actualisation: It deals with the full potential of people. It describes the needs of people working like have challenging jobs, opportunities for creativity, achievement in work promotion. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs USE OF MASLOW THEORY OF MOTIVATION AT BA Self-Actualisation needs: BA is fulfilling this need of its employees by giving them challenging jobs and providing them with training so they can develop their skills and perform well in their field of work and gain progress. Self esteem needs: BA is satisfying its employees this need by giving them job titles, position in the company and receiving feedbacks of job. Social needs: BA fulfils this need of its employees by making them work in groups and motivate them to work as a team. BA also organises cultural programs in the company for the employees where they can interact with each other and form social groups. Safety needs: for this need BA has introduced several pension plans where employees will be provided with pension after their retirement and bonuses at present time.BA has introduced free medical centres for its employees. Physiological need: BA fulfils this need of its employees by providing them with proper working conditions and paying them well according to their performance. Team effectiveness at BA Each colleague through the company together forms BritishÃ Airways and therefore must work together to accomplish the organizational vision and goal. Diversity and inclusion British Airways is very pleased to be one of the business organization that salutes and nurtures variances. Diversity and inclusion one are of the method of life for British Airways. The main emphasis of BA has been on developing its Dignity at Working strategy to reduce provocation and mistreatment in the workplace. BA has selected and skilled Provocation Advisors from across the world of business ,in response to their employees requests for people they can approach privately about any issues they may have and try to solve them. The advisors behaves as a listening ear to the employees and provide them with the guidance and practical knowledge. BA consults with its disabled employee group to identify disability issues and help them to ensure that they are making all BA products, services and training fully comprehensive and available. All the employees are trained in incapacity awareness to increase their awareness about the all disabled employees and customers. BA has also introduced a Building Ability strategy system to classify and encourage the needs of disabled customers and employees. BA frequently look at how it can progress the voyage of knowledge for the disabled customers and for the first time BA has conducted detailed customer research to classify areas for development. In July 2008, 522 members of the British Paralympics Association moved to Beijing for the Paralympic Games, providing BA with important trainings which BA can interpret into day-to-day practice. Generally, BA Pride at Work strategy comprises of process training, communications and workshops across the business which are helpful in development of BA as well as its employees. Colleague involvement BA certifies that all its colleagues are to be kept well knowledgeable about the working of its Company, customers and industry by using inclusive internal communications technique. BA gives priority to Face-to-face communication and run regular updates across the Company so that more people can interact at a time, share ideas with senior and line managers. BA also run workshops which are helpful for the managers in communicating and making key statements and also online forums and an online Ideas which can exchange to inspire wider discussion. On the Other hand BA has introduced online communication channels for the colleagues. (http://www.britishairways.com) Team Effectiveness Theory used by BA McGregors Theory X and Theory Y The motivation of employees is generally the accountability of the manager. AfterÃ McGregors study- The Human Side of Management recommends that two styles ofÃ employee exist, each retaining different needs. Theory X- expresses a negative sight of human nature, depicting employees as lethargic, unambitious people who loathing work and need to be measured through sentence. Theory Y- discusses that employees are not money motivated but increase recompense from the job itself. Theory Y grants employees as self-disciplined, work obliged people who desire accountability and inspired fulfillment. British Airways has adopted style of Theory Y to improve its Team effectiveness. Evidently Theory X and Theory Y workers will respond in conflicting means to altered management efforts to increase Team effectiveness. The Theory X employee is more expected to react to financial encouragements, so BA focus less on these types of employees and Theory Y employees are encouraged by job enhancement, job expansion, job rotation and superiority control groups which leads the company into the directions of success that is why BA focuses mainly on these types of employees and provide them with bonuses, pensions, training of working in groups as a team. Theory XÃ would lead BA towards falling in the area of better service. Communication To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others. Anthony Robbins quotesÃ (AmericanÃ advisor to leaders) Communication is the process of sending a message through a channel and receiving the feedback from the same medium. COMMUNICATION AT BRITISH AIRWAYS BAs strategy is reproduced in its mission statement, i.e. To be the undisputed leader in world travel. BAs communication strategy makes use of different IT communication system with different programs guarantee smooth running of the operations. The information system is accountable (Britishairwaysjobs.com, Undated).for all the working of It through BA groups and plays a crucial role in modelling the airline in future. British Airways symbols practice of Corporate Communications that is the global reputation of organisations manager and confirms that all concerned parties are awake of the airlines expansions and news. Corporate Communication is accountable of the airlines Intranet satisfied, which is one of the key networks used in care of mobile staff and providing with the latest newscast and strategies. British Airways has a distant employee population that is frequently travelling in all angles through the world. Regardless of this task, BA employees are well connected via the companys Intranet; presence in the sky, airports or on highways. BA also presented the Employee Self Service (ESS) project to deliver tools that agree staff worldwide to accomplish their own day-to-day management over the web (Computing, 2001). Corporate Communications is too responsible in the production of BA News, a weekly newspaper which is spread to its employees and team players. A protected, healthy and dependable 247 through the world IT procedure is used to guarantee an improved teamwork (networking) and communication channel; leading finished communication. BA another important channel of communication is IP Technology. Communication channel has a powerful tool of Advertisement. A sum of professional communications agencies are organised to distribute the airlines key communications to customers and media of BA operates in more than 80 countries Another important BA communication channel is BA Media. The sales arm of the communication channels for British Airways Media presented by Britains premier airline brand. The communications setting that BA Media bids is both exclusive and ever growing, giving an opening to reach its audience. BA Media is responsible in the production of Business in fields like TV, Magazines, Marketing material lounges, Radio magazines etc. (http://www.britishairways.com) RECOMMENDATION It appears that the main cause of the difficulties faced by British Airways is owed to the unplanned management variations executed. The problems also rise because of the insufficient knowledge of its management about the procedure of planned management and new management structures. It can be observed as a set of theories structures designed to describe the factors essential for the performance of organisations and to support managers in thinking about motivating, leadership, planning ,communication techniques and team effectiveness for the development of the employees as well as the organisation. These can be accomplished through: Reduce introduction to unprofitable sections of the market while taking strides to maintain and progress upon the effectiveness of its system. The recruitment process at BA is very time consuming due to the large number of candidates applying, the company must enhance a quicker decision making system or standard. BA should appoint more good inspirational leaders so the employees can get motivated. BA must concentrate upon the employees who are not working up to their mark and avoiding working in groups, it should adopt some strategy to motivate them and make them work in groups which will help in improving team effectiveness. The company should get in touch with their clients when they have some promotional offers. BA should have more of the customer service and loyalty programs it creates an atmosphere of self-awareness in the organisation among the employees. Conclusion British Airways remains carefully enthusiastic about its future projections. However, it is convinced that significantly more work lies in the future if the airline is to be successful. The motivation and commitment of employees is the significant for the accomplishment of British Airways. It has been verified that there is a clear link between employee motivation by leaders and customer contentment. The role of the People in the Division is to make sure that people within British Airways are well accomplished so that employee motivation remains high, leading to better customer service through the means of proper training and communication channel adopted by leaders in flat functioning of the organization. The Department is systematized into central expert units with People and Organization Distribution units who work alongside each section managers in British Airways. Lot of advantages has been taken to uphold motivation and self-confidence of employees after the redundancy period. Redundant employees were aided to find alternative employment. For the present employees, Bravo is the company acknowledgement scheme, providing people leaders with a means of identifyin g the contributions of teams and individuals. There is a advice-giving and participative method with the unions. It is the leaders of the organization who takes these initiatives to notify the remaining employees as more than just survivors. However, to solve such problems in relations of having good employee relationship and customer relationship the organisation brings back its strategy of Putting People First as Putting People First Again. In addition, the organisation also offers the updated course to all BA employees.