Monday, December 23, 2019

database - 4793 Words

Question 1 5 of 5 points An alternative to combining tables by a subquery is to use a join. Selected Answer: True Question 2 5 of 5 points Regarding the interchangeability of subqueries and joins, Selected Answer: a join can sometimes be used as an alternative to a subquery, and a subquery can sometimes be used as an alternative to a join. Question 3 5 of 5 points When making an SQL query, we are using SQL as a(n) ________. Selected Answer: DML Question 4 0 of 5 points Every subquery can be alternatively expressed by a join. Selected Answer: False Question 5 5 of 5 points The clause SELECT COUNT (*) results in a table with a†¦show more content†¦Question 2 5 of 5 points The SQL keyword UNIQUE is used to define alternative keys. Selected Answer: True Question 3 0 of 5 points If a trigger is being written to enforce referential integrity actions, you cannot use an INSTEAD OF trigger. Selected Answer: False Question 4 5 of 5 points If the values in an SQL view are changeable through the view itself, which SQL statement is used to change the values? Selected Answer: UPDATE Question 5 5 of 5 points In representing a 1:N relationship in a relational database design, the key of the table representing the entity on the many side is placed as a foreign key in the table representing the entity on the one side of the relationship. Selected Answer: False Question 6 0 of 5 points When transforming supertype/subtype entities into a relational database design, an entity is created for the supertype only. Selected Answer: True Question 7 5 of 5 points Cascading deletions are generally not used with relationships between strong entities. Selected Answer: True Question 8 5 of 5 points An ID-dependent table can be used to represent multivalued attributes. Selected Answer: True Question 9 5 of 5 points The key of an intersection table is always the combination of the keys of both parents. SelectedShow MoreRelatedDatabase And Database Management System Essay1068 Words   |  5 PagesZalgaonkir Pearson Cape Town Campus Introduction to Databases project Student Number: MB2014-0413 Teacher: Andrew Davies Due Date: 23/09/2016 2 Contents Page Page 1†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..Cover Page Page 2†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Contents Page Page 3-5†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Question 1 Page 6-12†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Optional Access Screenshots Page 13-18†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Question 2 Page 19†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦References and Bibliography 3 Question 1 1.1) Database Database is defined as a set of related data in many tables andRead MoreRelational Database : A Database1622 Words   |  7 Pages Relational Database Introduction – What is a relational database It is a database which shows the links and relationships between two sets of data/stored information in a document or mainly entities. This means e.g. if a computer system has to store a lot of data/information about people instead of repeating the same row of information which may include personal or unnecessary things, you will then be able to click on the main primary key data which then leads to the actual personal things. ThisRead MoreDatabase Security And Concerns Of A Compromised Database894 Words   |  4 PagesDatabase Security and Concerns In today’s world, there is a growing amount of complexity when it comes to databases. With that growing complexity, an increasing amount of security concerns arise, such as: unauthorized access and SQL injection. SQL injection is used to attack data-driven applications. SQL injections can manipulate or destroy databases depending on its purpose. Due to the security breaches, measures are constantly put in place in order to prevent anymore from happening. This paper’sRead MoreQuestions On Database Security And Database Systems1368 Words   |  6 PagesDATABASE SECURITY Submitted to the Faculty of American Public University By Loren Robert Hensley In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course of INFO620 Enterprise Database Systems November 2014 American Public University Charles Town, WV â€Æ' Abstract This paper explores the different aspects of security as it pertains to database systems. It will provide an overview of security concerns such as access control, user authentication, reliability and data integrity, as well as how IT professionalsRead MoreDatabase Indexes : Database Index2068 Words   |  9 Pages Database Indexes Akhila Mupparaju Wilmington University IST-7000 April 23, 2015 Sten David. Database Indexes A Database, support query optimization technique (Jeffery A. Hoffer, V. Ramesh, Heikki Topi, 2010). An index is a pointer to the data in a table, and it is an access mechanism that helps to find out where a record present. A database can have one or more indexes connected with it. A database index is one type of data structure, it is usedRead MoreTypes Of Database For Flat File Database939 Words   |  4 PagesTypes of Database 1. Flat File Database A flat file database is an excellent way of storing a pretty small amount of records. Flat file can be a plain text file. Flat file are generally not a structural relationships between the records. For example a spread sheet application such as Excel can be used as a flat file database. Each row in a worksheet can be a record and each column and a field. Flat file database can also be stored in a dedicated database application such as Access. Installing databaseRead MoreDatabase Management System : History Database System1408 Words   |  6 PagesDATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM History of database system: Brief history of database management is as follows, 1950s: Database management system started its journey in late 1950s with the invent of magnetic tapes. All the data was stored in tapes. Processing of data requires reading data from one or more tapes and writing to a new tape after processing. 1960s – 1970s: Database management system could enhance its features with invent of harddisk. Unlike files, hard disk supports random accessRead MoreTechnical Guide : Database And Database Essay1551 Words   |  7 PagesTechnical guide Database It is the collection of schemas, tables, queries, reports, views, and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies. It is a structured set of data held in a computer, especially one that is accessible in various ways. A database is a collection of information that is organized soRead MoreRelational Databases4819 Words   |  20 PagesCHAPTER 4 RELATIONAL DATABASES SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 4.1 Contrast the logical and the physical view of data and discuss why separate views are necessary in database applications. Describe which perspective is most useful for each of the following employees: a programmer, a manager, and an internal auditor. How will understanding logical data structures assist you when designing and using database systems?lt;/paragt;lt;/questiongt;lt;questionRead MoreRelational Database : Assignment : Database1882 Words   |  8 PagesRelational Database – Assignment Introduction – What is a relational database It is a database which shows the links and relationships between two sets of data/stored information in a document or mainly entities. This means e.g. if a computer system has to store a lot of data/information about people instead of repeating the same row of information which may include personal or unnecessary things, you will then be able to click on the main primary key data which then leads to the actual personal

Sunday, December 15, 2019

A Game of Thrones Chapter Forty-eight Free Essays

Jon Jon was breaking his fast on applecakes and blood sausage when Samwell Tarly plopped himself down on the bench. â€Å"I’ve been summoned to the sept,† Sam said in an excited whisper. â€Å"They’re passing me out of training. We will write a custom essay sample on A Game of Thrones Chapter Forty-eight or any similar topic only for you Order Now I’m to be made a brother with the rest of you. Can you believe it?† â€Å"No, truly?† â€Å"Truly. I’m to assist Maester Aemon with the library and the birds. He needs someone who can read and write letters.† â€Å"You’ll do well at that,† Jon said, smiling. Sam glanced about anxiously. â€Å"Is it time to go? I shouldn’t be late, they might change their minds.† He was fairly bouncing as they crossed the weed-strewn courtyard. The day was warm and sunny. Rivulets of water trickled down the sides of the Wall, so the ice seemed to sparkle and shine. Inside the sept, the great crystal caught the morning light as it streamed through the south-facing window and spread it in a rainbow on the altar. Pyp’s mouth dropped open when he caught sight of Sam, and Toad poked Grenn in the ribs, but no one dared say a word. Septon Celladar was swinging a censer, filling the air with fragrant incense that reminded Jon of Lady Stark’s little sept in Winterfell. For once the septon seemed sober. The high officers arrived in a body; Maester Aemon leaning on Clydas, Ser Alliser cold-eyed and grim, Lord Commander Mormont resplendent in a black wool doublet with silvered bearclaw fastenings. Behind them came the senior members of the three orders: red-faced Bowen Marsh the Lord Steward, First Builder Othell Yarwyck, and Ser Jaremy Rykker, who commanded the rangers in the absence of Benjen Stark. Mormont stood before the altar, the rainbow shining on his broad bald head. â€Å"You came to us outlaws,† he began, â€Å"poachers, rapers, debtors, killers, and thieves. You came to us children. You came to us alone, in chains, with neither friends nor honor. You came to us rich, and you came to us poor. Some of you bear the names of proud houses. Others have only bastards’ names, or no names at all. It makes no matter. All that is past now. On the Wall, we are all one house. â€Å"At evenfall, as the sun sets and we face the gathering night, you shall take your vows. From that moment, you will be a Sworn Brother of the Night’s Watch. Your crimes will be washed away, your debts forgiven. So too you must wash away your former loyalties, put aside your grudges, forget old wrongs and old loves alike. Here you begin anew. â€Å"A man of the Night’s Watch lives his life for the realm. Not for a king, nor a lord, nor the honor of this house or that house, neither for gold nor glory nor a woman’s love, but for the realm, and all the people in it. A man of the Night’s Watch takes no wife and fathers no sons. Our wife is duty. Our mistress is honor. And you are the only sons we shall ever know. â€Å"You have learned the words of the vow. Think carefully before you say them, for once you have taken the black, there is no turning back. The penalty for desertion is death.† The Old Bear paused for a moment before he said, â€Å"Are there any among you who wish to leave our company? If so, go now, and no one shall think the less of you.† No one moved. â€Å"Well and good,† said Mormont. â€Å"You may take your vows here at evenfall, before Septon Celladar and the first of your order. Do any of you keep to the old gods?† Jon stood. â€Å"I do, my lord.† â€Å"I expect you will want to say your words before a heart tree, as your uncle did,† Mormont said. â€Å"Yes, my lord,† Jon said. The gods of the sept had nothing to do with him; the blood of the First Men flowed in the veins of the Starks. He heard Grenn whispering behind him. â€Å"There’s no godswood here. Is there? I never saw a godswood.† â€Å"You wouldn’t see a herd of aurochs until they trampled you into the snow,† Pyp whispered back. â€Å"I would so,† Grenn insisted. â€Å"I’d see them a long way off.† Mormont himself confirmed Grenn’s doubts. â€Å"Castle Black has no need of a godswood. Beyond the Wall the haunted forest stands as it stood in the Dawn Age, long before the Andals brought the Seven across the narrow sea. You will find a grove of weirwoods half a league from this spot, and mayhap your gods as well.† â€Å"My lord.† The voice made Jon glance back in surprise. Samwell Tarly was on his feet. The fat boy wiped his sweaty palms against his tunic. â€Å"Might I . . . might I go as well? To say my words at this heart tree?† â€Å"Does House Tarly keep the old gods too?† Mormont asked. â€Å"No, my lord,† Sam replied in a thin, nervous voice. The high officers frightened him, Jon knew, the Old Bear most of all. â€Å"I was named in the light of the Seven at the sept on Horn Hill, as my father was, and his father, and all the Tarlys for a thousand years.† â€Å"Why would you forsake the gods of your father and your House?† wondered Ser Jaremy Rykker. â€Å"The Night’s Watch is my House now,† Sam said. â€Å"The Seven have never answered my prayers. Perhaps the old gods will.† â€Å"As you wish, boy,† Mormont said. Sam took his seat again, as did Jon. â€Å"We have placed each of you in an order, as befits our need and your own strengths and skills.† Bowen Marsh stepped forward and handed him a paper. The Lord Commander unrolled it and began to read. â€Å"Haider, to the builders,† he began. Haider gave a stiff nod of approval. â€Å"Grenn, to the rangers. Albett, to the builders. Pypar, to the rangers.† Pyp looked over at Jon and wiggled his ears. â€Å"Samwell, to the stewards.† Sam sagged with relief, mopping at his brow with,a scrap of silk. â€Å"Matthar, to the rangers. Dareon, to the stewards. Todder, to the rangers. Jon, to the stewards.† The stewards? For a moment Jon could not believe what he had heard. Mormont must have read it wrong. He started to rise, to open his mouth, to tell them there had been a mistake . . . and then he saw Ser Alliser studying him, eyes shiny as two flakes of obsidian, and he knew. The Old Bear rolled up the paper. â€Å"Your firsts will instruct you in your duties. May all the gods preserve you, brothers.† The Lord Commander favored them with a half bow, and took his leave. Ser Alliser went with him, a thin smile on his face. Jon had never seen the master-at-arms took quite so happy. â€Å"Rangers with me,† Ser Jaremy Rykker called when they were gone. Pyp was staring at Jon as he got slowly to his feet. His ears were red. Grenn, grinning broadly, did not seem to realize that anything was amiss. Matt and Toad fell in beside them, and they followed Ser Jaremy from the sept. â€Å"Builders,† announced lantern-jawed Othell Yarwyck. Haider and Albett trailed out after him. Jon looked around him in sick disbelief. Maester Aemon’s blind eyes were raised toward the light he could not see. The septon was arranging crystals on the altar. Only Sam and Darcon remained on the benches; a fat boy, a singer . . . and him. Lord Steward Bowen Marsh rubbed his plump hands together. â€Å"Samwell, you will assist Maester Aemon in the rookery and library. Chett is going to the kennels, to help with the hounds. You shall have his cell, so as to be close to the maester night and day. I trust you will take good care of him. He is very old and very precious to us. â€Å"Dareon, I am told that you sang at many a high lord’s table and shared their meat and mead. We are sending you to Eastwatch. It may be your palate will be some help to Cotter Pyke when merchant galleys come trading. We are paying too dear for salt beef and pickled fish, and the quality of the olive oil we’re getting has been frightful, Present yourself to Borcas when you arrive, he will keep you busy between ships.† Marsh turned his smile on Jon. â€Å"Lord Commander Mormont has requested you for his personal steward, Jon. You’ll sleep in a cell beneath his chambers, in the Lord Commander’s tower.† â€Å"And what will my duties be?† Jon asked sharply. â€Å"Will I serve the Lord Commander’s meals, help him fasten his clothes, fetch hot water for his bath?† â€Å"Certainly.† Marsh frowned at Jon’s tone. â€Å"And you will run his messages, keep a fire burning in his chambers, change his sheets and blankets daily, and do all else that the Lord Commander might require of you.† â€Å"Do you take me for a servant?† â€Å"No,† Maester Aemon said, from the back of the sept. Clydas helped him stand. â€Å"We took you for a man of the Night’s Watch . . . but perhaps we were wrong in that.† It was all Jon could do to stop himself from walking out. Was he supposed to churn butter and sew doublets like a girl for the rest of his days? â€Å"May I go?† he asked stiffly. â€Å"As you wish,† Bowen Marsh responded. Dareon and Sam left with him. They descended to the yard in silence. Outside, Jon looked up at the Wall shining in the sun, the melting ice creeping down its side in a hundred thin fingers. Jon’s rage was such that he would have smashed it all in an instant, and the world be damned. â€Å"Jon,† Samwell Tarly said excitedly. â€Å"Wait. Don’t you see what they’re doing?† Jon turned on him in a fury. â€Å"I see Ser Alliser’s bloody hand, that’s all I see. He wanted to shame me, and he has.† Dareon gave him a look. â€Å"The stewards are fine for the likes of you and me, Sam, but not for Lord Snow.† â€Å"I’m a better swordsman and a better rider than any of you,† Jon blazed back. â€Å"It’s not fair!† â€Å"Fair?† Dareon sneered. â€Å"The girl was waiting for me, naked as the day she was born. She pulled me through the window, and you talk to me of fair?† He walked off. â€Å"There is no shame in being a steward,† Sam said. â€Å"Do you think I want to spend the rest of my life washing an old man’s smallclothes?† â€Å"The old man is Lord Commander of the Night’s Watch,† Sam reminded him. â€Å"You’ll be with him day and night. Yes, you’ll pour his wine and see that his bed linen is fresh, but you’ll also take his letters, attend him at meetings, squire for him in battle. You’ll be as close to him as his shadow. You’ll know everything, be a part of everything . . . and the Lord Steward said Mormont asked for you himself! â€Å"When I was little, my father used to insist that I attend him in the audience chamber whenever he held court. When he rode to Highgarden to bend his knee to Lord Tyrell, he made me come. Later, though, he started to take Dickon and leave me at home, and he no longer cared whether I sat through his audiences, so long as Dickon was there. He wanted his heir at his side, don’t you see? To watch and listen and learn from all he did. I’ll wager that’s why Lord Mormont requested you, Jon. What else could it be? He wants to groom you for command!† Jon was taken aback. It was true, Lord Eddard had often made Robb part of his councils back at Winterfell. Could Sam be right? Even a bastard could rise high in the Night’s Watch, they said. â€Å"I never asked for this,† he said stubbornly. â€Å"None of us are here for asking,† Sam reminded him. And suddenly Jon Snow was ashamed. Craven or not, Samwell Tarly had found the courage to accept his fate like a man. On the Wall, a man gets only what he earns, Benjen Stark had said the last night Jon had seen him alive. You’re no ranger, Jon, only a green boy with the smell of summer still on you. He’d heard it said that bastards grow up faster than other children; on the Wall, you grew up or you died. Jon let out a deep sigh. â€Å"You have the right of it. I was acting the boy.† â€Å"Then you’ll stay and say your words with me?† â€Å"The old gods will be expecting us.† He made himself smile. They set out late that afternoon. The Wall had no gates as such, neither here at Castle Black nor anywhere along its three hundred miles. They led their horses down a narrow tunnel cut through the ice, cold dark walls pressing in around them as the passage twisted and turned. Three times their way was blocked by iron bars, and they had to stop while Bowen Marsh drew out his keys and unlocked the massive chains that secured them. Jon could sense the vast weight pressing down on him as he waited behind the Lord Steward. The air was colder than a tomb, and more still. He felt a strange relief when they reemerged into the afternoon light on the north side of the Wall. Sam blinked at the sudden glare and looked around apprehensively. â€Å"The wildlings . . . they wouldn’t . . . they’d never dare come this close to the Wall. Would they?† â€Å"They never have.† Jon climbed into his saddle. When Bowen Marsh and their ranger escort had mounted, Jon put two fingers in his mouth and whistled. Ghost came loping out of the tunnel. The Lord Steward’s garron whickered and backed away from the direwolf. â€Å"Do you mean to take that beast?† â€Å"Yes, my lord,† Jon said. Ghost’s head lifted. He seemed to taste the air. In the blink of an eye he was off, racing across the broad, weed-choked field to vanish in the trees. Once they had entered the forest, they were in a different world. Jon had often hunted with his father and Jory and his brother Robb. He knew the wolfswood around Winterfell as well as any man. The haunted forest was much the same, and yet the feel of it was very different. Perhaps it was all in the knowing. They had ridden past the end of the world; somehow that changed everything. Every shadow seemed darker, every sound more ominous. The trees pressed close and shut out the light of the setting sun. A thin crust of snow cracked beneath the hooves of their horses, with a sound like breaking bones. When the wind set the leaves to rustling, it was like a chilly finger tracing a path up Jon’s spine. The Wall was at their backs, and only the gods knew what lay ahead. The sun was sinking below the trees when they reached their destination, a small clearing in the deep of the wood where nine weirwoods grew in a rough circle. Jon drew in a breath, and he saw Sam Tarly staring. Even in the wolfswood, you never found more than two or three of the white trees growing together; a grove of nine was unheard of. The forest floor was carpeted with fallen leaves, bloodred on top, black rot beneath. The wide smooth trunks were bone pale, and nine faces stared inward. The dried sap that crusted in the eyes was red and hard as ruby. Bowen Marsh commanded them to leave their horses outside the circle. â€Å"This is a sacred place, we will not defile it.† When they entered the grove, Samwell Tarly turned slowly looking at each face in turn. No two were quite alike. â€Å"They’re watching us,† he whispered. â€Å"The old gods.† â€Å"Yes.† Jon knelt, and Sam knelt beside him. They said the words together, as the last light faded in the west and grey day became black night. â€Å"Hear my words, and bear witness to my vow,† they recited, their voices filling the twilit grove. â€Å"Night gathers, and now my watch begins. It shall not end until my death. I shall take no wife, hold no lands, father no children. I shall wear no crowns and win no glory. I shall live and die at my post. I am the sword in the darkness. I am the watcher on the walls. I am the fire that burns against the cold, the light that brings the dawn, the horn that wakes the sleepers, the shield that guards the realms of men. I pledge my life and honor to the Night’s Watch, for this night and all the nights to come.† The woods fell silent. â€Å"You knelt as boys,† Bowen Marsh intoned solemnly. â€Å"Rise now as men of the Night’s Watch.† Jon held out a hand to pull Sam back to his feet. The rangers gathered round to offer smiles and congratulations, all but the gnarled old forester Dywen. â€Å"Best we be starting back, m’lord,† he said to Bowen Marsh. â€Å"Dark’s falling, and there’s something in the smell o’ the night that I mislike.† And suddenly Ghost was back, stalking softly between two weirwoods. White fur and red eyes, Jon realized, disquieted. Like the trees . . . The wolf had something in his jaws. Something black. â€Å"What’s he got there?† asked Bowen Marsh, frowning. â€Å"To me, Ghost.† Jon knelt. â€Å"Bring it here.† The direwolf trotted to him. Jon heard Samwell Tarly’s sharp intake of breath. â€Å"Gods be good,† Dywen muttered. â€Å"That’s a hand.† How to cite A Game of Thrones Chapter Forty-eight, Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Bendigo Education Plan

Question: Describe about the Audience and structure of the project management plan and Contents of project management plan of Bendigo? Answer: Executive summary Bendigo in a big community in Victoria , Australia . It constitutes an important part of the socio-economic part of the country. So, government is interested in the improvement of the community. An important requirement of the community is a good and up dated education system. There are only one primary, four secondary and one senior secondary schools in the area. The students of the community is dependent on these schools. Now the schools are in trouble to meet the expectation of the parents, there is problems related to retention and attendance of the students. The contemporary classroom based educational system is no more effective with the dynamic requirements in the changing world, so the education department of the government has undertaken an education plan that will reshape the education system based on the requirements of the students. It will be more related to personalized student education. The project plan of the Bendigo Education Plan has been released, but it needs some critical analysis to validate it against the project management plan framework used in project management. The analysis will be backed up from the theories of project management. Finally the critical analysis of the project management plan needs some recommendation based on the outcomes of the analysis. The analysis has found several shortcoming and lack of information in the project plan when comparing the same to standard project management plan. Introduction The aim of this report is to analyze the project plan for Bendigo Education Plan from different critical aspects. The project was supposed to deliver a better education plan to the students from Bendigo area. Being the second largest municipality of the Victoria area, Bendigo has a huge population. The youths from Bendigo needs to have better education, a future with dynamic learning networks and revolutionary learning processes. The Bendigo Education Plan was an attempt to blend technology with education and building a better educational framework for future generations. The plan has several recommendations and categories of those recommendations. (BEP, 2006) In this report, the project plan for Bendigo educational plan will be analyzed based on some proposed pmp framework. To proceed with this report, there will be several sections and subsections. After this introductory section there will be discussions on project background. The context of the project, along with the information about the project owner, project sponsor, activities of the organization, location of the organization, etc. Will be described. Then the audience structure for this project management plan, content of the project management plan covering the areas from project management plan framework. Finally there will be conclusion and recommendation for the project. All these aspects will be critically reviewed. All required details like the project plan for the Bendigo Education Plan etc. Will be added to the appendix part. The director of the Bendigo Education Plan projects is responsible for the communications and all required implementation of the Bendigo Education Plan plan by staying within the budget limit. There are communication strategies detailed project plans and budget for each of the individual projects under Bendigo Education Plan. (BEP, 2006) Project background The project, Bendigo Education Plan has been undertaken by government of Victoria , Australia . The government. Mr. Ian stevens is the chairperson of the steering committee and the working group of the project. Mr. Rob hallisey is the executive officer of the steering committee and the working group. There are one primary, four secondary and one senior secondary schools in bendigo. In many cases these schools have failed to meet the expectations of the communities also, it has various difficulties in catering the need of the huge number of students coming from bendogo and nearby areas. There are private schools in the area, but the education system in Bendigo is dependent on these government schools. The project, Bendigo Education Plan has been undertaken to bridge the gap between the current educational systems of the area to the requirements of the students from the community, their expectations from the schools, building a better teacher-student relationship, training teachers to provide better educational environment in the schools. Under Bendigo Education Plan, there are several individual projects. There are 39 recommendations for achieving the goals of the Bendigo Education Plan. These recommendations covers requirements of students, teachers, courses, community and govern ance. Many projects under Bendigo Education Plan are interrelated. From these projects the student attendance and retention are supposed to be improved. (BEP, 2006) Audience and structure of the project management plan For the project management plan for Bendigo Education Plan, there is a larger audience base. The audience base includes the community of bendigo, the students and teachers, the management committees of the government schools there and other persons who are stakeholders of Bendigo Education Plan. (BEP, 2006) There are four main categories of stakeholders in the Bendigo Education Plan project. They are the community members including the teachers, parents etc. And the students. Students are the main audience of the project. The project is basically developed for them, their future and current educational needs. The project management plan is also for the owner and sponsor of the project. Here the owner or sponsor is the government of Victoria , department of education. They need this plan to understand the scope, purpose and applicability of the project. The project management plan describes details of the different projects under Bendigo Education Plan that are proposed for the 39 recommendations in the Bendigo Education Plan plan. In the first section of the Bendigo Education Plan project management plan, there is an introductory section that describes the background of Bendigo Education Plan. It describes the three critical pillars of the Bendigo Education Plan plan as the requirements of the Bendigo youths in terms of education and extra-curricular, requirement of the dynamic schooling rather than contemporary schooling process and revolutionize learning by different learning choices, depth, challenge, authenticity and technical connectivity. (BEP, 2006) It also describes the groups under which there are 39 recommendations of Bendigo Education Plan. The scopes of Bendigo Education Plan project is also described in this section. As a part of the project management plan, this section clearly outlines the background and the scope and objectives of the project. Following the introductory section, there is a section called project. It has different sub sections having details of the projects under Bendigo Education Plan from different categories. Details of total 18 projects of Bendigo Education Plan are listed under the section called project. Each of this project has a description of how the project will be carried out, what is the timing and inter dependencies of the project, what are the key deliverables and who is responsible for the project. There is an accompanying project gantt chart showing these project, the relationships and timings. The format is different than formal project management report. (BEP, 2006) In the next section there is a risk management section. There are detailed information about the risks management process including identification, evaluation and management of the risks associated with the projects. The final section of the project management plan contains details of the project governance. There is a project governance structure showing the working parties involved in the project governance and how they are involved. According to national competency standards for project management or ncspm, the structure of project management should include details of (Heldman, 2013) Project integrative processes Scope management Time management Cost management Quality management Human resource management Communication management Risk management Procurement management. All information about these topics should be a part of the project management plan. Project integrative processes includes the details of the integrations of other eight factors, scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, communication, risks and procurement. It states how the integration will be done within the boundaries of the scopes of the projects. The agreed baselines in the contracts with the supplier or clients, made in the project should be followed. There are many tradeoffs between different sets of competitive forces in a project also there are other alternatives. The project objectives should meet at any situation and those should not be crossed. The rule is to fulfill the baselines and this is to be followed throughout the whole project life cycle. There may be influences from environments. The project planning and project management process should consider those and decide how to deal with those. (Hill, 2009) The scope management process related the work needed to produce the end results or products from the project to the expected products of the project. There should be an initial justification of the project start up, details of the deliverables by the project, project constraints and objectives. Defining project scopes is like making the foundation of the project management plan, based on this plan rest of the plans will be done and integrated with the scope management plan. Next part of the project management plan in the time management plan. The activities in a project like the development, analysis and controls of the projects have some schedule, timeline, inter-dependencies. Meeting those properly is a critical part of the overall project management plan. The project objectives should be met but the limits of the schedule and the time frames allocated for each activities should not be broken. Time management helps in balancing the cost, capability and quality of a project. The right balance of these is very important success factor of the overall project. Any project has some budget. In the cost management process, the expected cost to carry out each project activities is considered and the total project cost is refined. It helps in producing a realistic project budget with enough analysis. This is an important role player that controls the cost of the overall project. Cost management is also a critical success factors for a project that helps in balancing, time, capability and quality properly. Next comes quality management. As already discussed, other than schedule and cost, quality of the project deliverables and the overall project is a critical role player in success of the project. The activities in a project are needed to be carried out is such a way that the quality policy of the project is optimized. The standards are posed on the objectives of the project through project quality management. The larger goal and aspect of quality management is to gain more customer satisfaction. Quality planning is a continuous process. The control and assurance of quality management is also the same, these brings continuous improvement to the overall project along the entire life cycle of the project. The human resources or the project teams should work in a cohesive way. The common purposes of these teams is adherence to the project objectives. In the human resource management process, the requirement of human resources in each of the project activities is identified and evaluated. During identification of the requirement of human resources for each of the project activities, it needs to consider the organizational mix and he core project teams. Recruitment of staffs, selection and providing training to the selected staffs, all comes under human resource management process. This is to be done according to the changes during the life cycle of the project. (Heldman, 2013) Communications is an important part of any organization and any project. In the process of project communication management, the communication across of the project teams, client etc. Are managed. There will be sharing of ideas, information etc. In an organized and optimized way as a result of effective communication management process. It generates, collects, and disseminates, stores and disposes information related to the process through some formal processes and structures, helps in decision making activities, controlling networks of informal communications and helps in meeting the project objectives. procurement Risk management is the process of identifying, evaluating, mitigating and managing risks though out the life cycle of the project. The basic aim of project risk management is to optimize the positive risks or opportunities and minimizing the impacts of negative risks of threats. It also need to record the risk management process and outcomes, knowledge gathered from the process. (Heldman, 2010) The final one is procurement management, there are lots of activities in procurement management. It handles all market analysis, contractual information etc. There may be tendering for seeking contracts from vendors. Other than that it includes, monitoring, managing and administering the contracts from the very beginning of the project management. However, the procurement activities are started to be recorded from the beginning of the project planning and this is refined throughout the entire project life cycle. The objectives of the project are needed to be made in procurement management also. (Kousholt, 2007)(Fleming, 2003). In case of Bendigo Education Plan, these information are not structured in this way or information are missing. First of all, there is no structured information about the project integrative processes. The integration of project budgets, schedule, risks and contracts to the scope of the project has not been described in the Bendigo Education Plan project management plan. Details of the external and internal influential environmental details are also not given in the document. (Kloppenborg, 2014) The scopes of the project have nee outlines, but there is mention of the scope management process. The time management details is also absent in the Bendigo Education Plan project management plan. There is no reference to any type of information about the project cost, budget management etc. Also there is no information about the quality management for the project, what standards are to be followed etc. Human resources is a critical aspect of the Bendigo Education Plan projects. No details about the human resource management process is also present in the Bendigo Education Plan project management plan. There is no information about the communication management and procurement management also. However, there is enough information about the risk management for the Bendigo Education Plan projects. Thus, the Bendigo Education Plan project management report lacks critical information about the project management details. Contents of project management plan As already stated, the project management plan for Bendigo Education Plan, has not all required sections of a project management document. It consists of an introductory section, a brief details of the projects that are supposed to be carries out under Bendigo Education Plan, a schedule of the project plans, risk analysis and project governance plan. So, there are a lot of information missing or partially provided. In this section, the given information will be analyzed only. (Cohen, 2001) At first there is an introductory section that describes the o0verview of the project. It basically contains the scopes and objectives of the project. It will helps to understand the context of the project. Then, there is a section outlining the projects under the Bendigo Education Plan. There is very brief information about the project. It just gives information of the outlines of the project. It lacks the details of the activities, requirement of the resources, and scope of each project. Based on these outlining information a schedule Gantt chart have been prepared. The Gantt chart also gives an idea of the project duration and interdependencies among the projects. (Young, 2013) Then, there is a risk management section. It outlines, the risks associated to the Bendigo Education Plan as a whole. The risks related to Bendigo Education Plan has been identified as project budget, variations and constructions, implementation of the projects under Bendigo Education Plan recommendations within the stipulated time frame. A risk register is also drafted for outlining the identified risks associated to the projects, the levels of impacts for each of those risks, probable mitigation plans. The risk register contains lot of criteria for evaluations of the identified risks. For example, it contains a risk reference number for referring to some identified risk uniquely, a category of the identified risk. The risk categories have been identified and developed from a risk categorization matrix. No explicit information about the risk categorization matrix for the risk register has been given there. There are other risk register attributes like, risk description, risk owner, impact score, likelihood score, raw risk score, acceptance of risk, current mitigation actions, mitigation effectiveness ratings, residual risk score, acceptance of risks, required treatment actions, timing and review date. Two five point rating scale has been developed for risk impact matrix and risk likelihood matrix. A risk owner can be the person who is responsible for the risk. The person may be some private party, government etc. Residual risk score has been calculated as the product of impact ratin g, likelihood rating and mitigation effectiveness rating of a risk. The final residual risk score sets the priority of the risk. (Heldman, 2010) Finally there is a description of the project governance of the Bendigo Education Plan. The overall responsibilities of the project is laid on Bendigo Education Plan board. The main responsibilities of the project are, approval of the strategic and operational planning of the project, delivery of the Bendigo Education Plan, oversight and approval of the communication strategies to be followed in Bendigo Education Plan projects, overseeing the milestones and achievements of Bendigo Education Plan milestones, approval of the overall project budget. There is a list containing the name and details of the Bendigo Education Plan project board, who are there for which responsibility. (BEP, 2006) The accountabilities of Bendigo Education Plan project director are also stated in the project management plan accountabilities are strategically management and facilitation of the Bendigo Education Plan implementation meting the objectives, scope, budget, community expectations and other considerations, identification of the authority provided for active management and advices, development, management and implementation of the communication strategies, development and maintenance of partnership with various key stakeholders, management of the interdependencies and interrelationships in the project. (Fusco, 1997) The lists containing the members of the implementation committee, working practices to be followed in the project, master planning committee and its role, etc. Are also given as a part of the project governance under project management plan. The master planning committee has a role to oversee the build program. The build program is a project under the Bendigo Education Plan.(BEP, 2006) Even there is lots of missing and partial information, still the Bendigo Education Plan helps to understand context of the project, expected duration of the project and the objectives of the project. But there are a lot of important information that are missing and it makes the project management plan incomplete. There is no information about the budget and quality of the project. For project management, budget, schedule and quality are very important. Also there is lack of information about the integration of all aspects of project management with the scopes of the project. There is also very little information about the external and internal environmental influences in the project. Expectation of the community is a driving factor behind the project. It describes the requirements of dynamic and more technical education environment for the youth in bendigo. The opportunities and threats in the given context is not describes in the risk document, hence, the documentation also lacks de tails. (Larson Gray, 2011) Conclusion To conclude the discussion on critical analysis of the project management plan from the Bendigo educational plan, it can be said at the first place that the project management plan is incomplete and lacks important details of most of the aspects of an effective project management plan. As described in the report, if it is compared to the theoretical project management plan framework, then there is lots of dissimilarities. There are total 8 aspects of a project management plan according to the theory. Those are the scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, risk, communication and procurement. The project plan of Bendigo Education Plan lacks most of it. As discussed, the plan has described the scopes, but it lacks details of the scope management and how different aspects of the project management plan integrates with the scopes of the project. There is only a schedule having terms as project duration. There is no specific project duration, the schedule only outlines the projects, and it does not give any details of the work break down structure of the projects. As there are many projects under the same Bendigo Education Plan, so the WBS of each project is needed to understand the big picture. There is no information about the budget of the project, how quality control management will be carried out, how human resource management will be done, how procurement and communication management will be done. There is only a detailed information about the risks of the project. The aspects like scheduling, budget and quality controls are important for success of any project. The strengths of the project is it is a government initiated project and covers the requirement of a vast portion of the community. The weakness is, there is lack of clear understanding of the project management plan, and it may create confusion about the project management in later part of the project life cycle. Recommendation The chosen PMP framework is a complete and detailed project management plan framework. It covers almost all aspects of a project management plan. It will help to carry out the project development in a more organized and hassle freeway. It is recommended for Bendigo Education Plan project to follow the PMP framework. That will help them to uncover different aspects of the project. As this is a larger project and the impact will be significant on the lives of the parents, students, teachers of Bendigo, so, the project should be carried out in the best possible way. To do so, it needs to have a detailed and solid project management plan. Otherwise issues may rise up in the middle of the project development that may lead to severe consequences. For example, there is no clear understanding of the schedule and cost of the project. As there are critical projects to be carried out and there are interdependencies among the projects, so, there are high changes to be tangled up in the activitie s and interdependences in the middle of the project, risks of schedule slippage, cost overrun etc. To avoid such cases, it needs to have a good project management plan, possibly as guided in the given project management plan from theory. References Anon., 2010. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. PMI. Anon., n.d. Virtual Project Management global knowledge. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 2014]. BEP, 2006. Bendigo Education Plan: Project Plan. s.l.:BEP. Cohen, D. a. R. G., 2001. The Project Managers MBA. In: San Francisco: s.n. Department of Education' Victoria, 2006. Bendigo Education Plan, s.l.: s.n. Fleming, Q. 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